Monday, May 10, 2021

New Indigenous Acculturation Over Previous Portuguese Civilizatory Acculturation in Brazil

 

It is nothing new that the arrival of the Portuguese in Brazil, as well as the consequent colonization, put an end to several ancestral traditions of multiple indigenous nations that lived here, it is also nothing new that I am very interested in reliving part of this loss through the due valorization of these peoples culture, either through the study and rescue of Tupi Antigo, ancestral language linked to Nheengatu, Lingua Geral Brasileira and Paulistana, widely spoken in practically the entire Brazilian territory, until its prohibition on August 17, 1758, when the Portuguese language became the official language of Brazil, through a decree of the Marquis of Pombal; or either through rescuing Cauim, an alcoholic beverage obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of manioc, produced in a ritualistic way by practically all native Brazilian cultures; that is to say, by the mere collection and availability of centralized information on the resistant ethnicities that still survive today.


It is clear that the lost cultures will never be rescued exactly as they were when they were overlapped by the Portuguese cultures, the losses were massive and irreparable, dramatically decimated - much of it was lost in oral traditions that would never be heard in their native languages, nor even in languages spoken today.

Another extremely important point to be well observed is that the development of Cauim as a beverage for recreational consumption, has nothing in common with the Cauim and Cauinágem, promoted and celebrated even today in the villages as part of elaborate ancient rituals. Cauinágem is performed in a ritualistic manner by multiple ethnic groups within the national territory, the beverage has several names, such as, Caxirí, Chicha, Saki, Makaloba, etc. they are produced mostly from saccharification of cassava by means of salivary amylase, and  rituals vary enormously from culture to culture, deserving the deepest respect and admiration.

‘Industrial Cauim’, on the other hand, has this name by definition of the Portuguese language, based on the Tupi Antigo idiom, is only obtained by modern industrial processes, originated from studies and experiences performed from the year 2000, until today, part of it conceived by Luiz Pagano, as a mere cultural vehicle for rescue, amidst the artistic movement called 'Tupi-Pop'.

At the 2016 Capivara Parade event, Luiz Pagano took an action based on the Cow Parade, with the purpose of making the city of Curitiba aware of the importance of having cities in full harmony with nature - The Capybaras arrive in the polluted rivers of the largest Brazilian cities to remind us that we must respect coexist with the environment

Cauinágem and Cauim must never be reduced to a mere recreational product called 'alcoholic drink of manioc fermentation'.

On the other hand, after years of experience working with French Alcoholic Beverages Producers, old traditional masters in transmitting culture through food and beverages, using elaborate harmonizations combined with amazing storytellings, Pagano realized that Industrial Cauim has the potential to be the perfect ambassador to ancient native traditions, an indelible vehicle for valuing cultures long neglected, ridiculed and treated with prejudice by a large part of Brazilians themselves.

To continue with this ambitious project, I bring here some theories about acculturation techniques that should be well studied and mastered, presented by the Association For Consumer Research  (https://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/11461/volumes/e01/E-01 )

The purpose of this article is to focus on how cultural environmental factors mediated through the individual may influence her or his consumption acculturation. In doing so, we will use the following approach. First, basic concepts that are needed to capture the phenomenon under investigation, i.e., consumer acculturation, and factors influencing this to occur, are discussed. Next, a perspective to guide our investigation emphasizing barriers and incentives to adapt the individual¦s consumption activities to the new cultural environment, deriving from differences between the culture of origin and the new cultural context, is developed. We then proceed by identifying elements from these cultural contexts, and discuss how they may exert influence on consumer acculturation stated as propositions.

The multidimensionality and complexity of culture have been described in many ways. Kroeber and Kluckhan (1952) in their seminal effort to define the concept stated that:

Conceptual artist Luiz Pagano created the Tupi-Pop style as a way to promote acculturation through art. On this site, he listed more than 240 ethnic groups to facilitate study in middle and elementary education - "we only protect what we love, and we only love what we know"
https://indigenasbrasileiros.blogspot.com/



CC, we think culture is a product; is historical; includes ideas, patterns, and values; is selective; is learned; is based on symbols; and is an abstraction from behavior and the products of behavior. CC All cultures are largely made up of overt, patterned way of behaving, feeling and reacting. But cultures likewise include a characteristic set of unstated promises and categories which vary greatly between societies (p. 157).

This quote reflects beliefs that culture is learned and shared with other people, and influences not only how one behaves, but also one expects other to behave. How culture best can be understood and how to explain the functioning of culture have, however, changed over the years. For example, many anthropologists now prefer the term "enacted" (instead of learned), which recognizes that people don't just passively accept culture, they actively create it (cf. Keesing 1974; Swidler 1986).

Swidler (1986) in her penetrating analysis sees culture as shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action" (p. 273). In order to act purposefully the individual needs both procedural and contextual knowledge, i.e. domain specific knowledge allowing for "contextual rationality" (March, 1978, p. 592) in addition to rules and procedures to exhibit "procedural rationality" (Simon 1978, p. 8). The acquisition of a repertoire of habits and skills as proposed by Swidler (1986) reflects the belief that relevant knowledge to exhibit intendedly rational behavior both may be learnedBor enactedBin a specific context, and that this knowledge may be (more or less) context bound.

Comics are perfect vehicles for acculturation among young adults - in this case, the hero Visconde Quaresma, serves Cauim (Heroes of Bruzundanga, volume 1 - Luiz Pagano)

Acculturation

Acculturation has been conceptualized in several ways in past research. Redfield et al. (1936), for example, define this concept as:

". . . those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns. . ." (p. 149).

In their Summer Seminar in 1954, the Social Research Council proposed the following definition:

". . . culture change that is initiated by the conjunction of two or more autonomous cultural systems. . ." (SSRC 1954, p. 974)

A closer look at the two definitions reveals that a prerequisite for acculturation is contact between two (or more) groups from different cultures. The first of the quoted definitions claims that "first-hand" contact is required for acculturation to take place. The SSRC's definition is broader, as it contends that

"Acculturation change may be the consequence of direct cultural transmission; it may be derived from noncultural causes, such as ecological or demographic modifications induced by an impinging culture;. . ." (p. 974)

It should also be noted that the term cultural contact often is used instead of acculturation, in order to emphasize that immigrant, don't just the host culture, they help to change it, i.e., the result of cultural contact is two-way influence (Furnham and Bochner, 1986).

Acculturation implies change(s). Culture is a complex phenomenon consisting of a variety of cultural elements. Various cultural elements are gradually learned, adopted or rejected (Berry, 1980). This is also reflected in previous research conceiving acculturation as a process. A new culture may be learned (and adopted to) more or less fully. When the new culture is learned to the extent that the newcomer is accepted as a genuine member of the new culture s/he is said to be assimilated. Even though acculturation may take place among both (all) groups with different cultural background encountering each other, the focus here will primarily be on individuals crossing borders, i.e., newcomers often facing the new situation as cultural minorities.

Consumer Behavior

Consumers and their behaviors represent an important arena for inquiry which has for long have attracted researchers from several disciplines. Several definitions of consumer behavior appear in the consumer behavior literature. The definitions offered vary in scope and width [Most of the definitions focus on the individual, emphasizing consumer behavior as decision making (e.g., Assael, 1984), and de-emphasizing the social aspect of this behavior (for an exception, see Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983). Moreover, it is not unfair to say that past research on consumer behavior has demonstrated a strong bias towards pre-purchase behavior (cf. Arndt, 1976).]. 

Consumer behavior can be conceived as a process, including acquisition (i.e., recognition of buying problems, search behavior, evaluations and execution of purchases), use and disposal of goods. Consumers seek product and services to satisfy specific needs.

According to Boyd and Levy (1962) consumers emphasize specific goals related to their consumption system. Thus consumers become buyers to obtain something; i.e., purchase (and use and disposal) of goods may be seen as means to reach specific consumption goals, whatever they are. Consumption activities including consumption goals and symbolic meaning of goods (Levy, 1981) are learned and shaped in a cultural context. An important aspect of the cultural context is the product/service environment in which the consumer is embedded. The individual is immensed in a cultural context over the whole life-span, so are her or his consumption activities. Through observation, imitation and interactions with socializing agents, individuals learn the culture brought up in and they become socialized as consumers (Moschis, 1984). Consumer acculturation refers to the subset of acculturation related to consumption activities.

A Perspective

Acculturation implies, as noted above, changes, so do consumer acculturation. Several authors have noted that such changes can be stressfull (Padilla, 1980, Furnham and Bochner, 1986). Changes are associated with efforts and may require new skills in order to be completed. In borrowing from the literature on strategy (e.g., Porter, 1980), individuals can be conceived as confronted with various barriers in making acculturation changes (cf. Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983, p. 508), as are firms when trying to enter new markets. When the individual enters a new culture s/he may be confronted with barriers due to lack of knowledge and skills, which may hamper consumer acculturation. There may as well exist factors that help immigrants resist acculturation (cf. Mehta and Belk, 1991). Type and "height" of these barriers, whatever they are, have implications for which aspects of the consumer behavior that will be changed, in what order, and the speed of changes that will take place when entering a new culture. Understanding of barriers faced by the consumer is thus of importance to grasp the phenomenon of consumer acculturation.

There may be various reasons for changing consumption behavior. To be accepted in a new cultural environment often requires adaptive behavior, as reflected in the old saying: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do!" Thus knowledge of incentives for change is important to understand consumer acculturation. Even though the market place is of crucial importance for consumption, or more correctly for acquisition of goods and services, consuming activities may take place in other settings, e.g., at home, alone, together with family, friends, colleagues, bosses and clients. Expectations to own consumption activities vary across social arenas, so may incentives to change such activities. Identification of incentives for acculturation, and under which conditions they are effective, is thus important for our understanding of consumer acculturation.

Culture includesBamong other thingsBlearned and shared symbols, values, attitudes, knowledge and behavior. Being immersed in a culture also implies being familiar with a specific product/service environment and social institutions, as well as having social relationships. The social relations are in fact important as information and norms are transmitted and learned through such relationships. To establish social relationships takes time and requires social skills. For the individual, social relationships are important and they are of great personal value. According to Coleman (1988), such relationships can be conceived as "social capital", and they represent an important part of the human capital as well. Crossing cultural borders imply that new social settings must be learned, and new social relationships created.

It is natural that indigenous people demand reparation for everything bad that Portuguese colonization has brought - but the proposal of acculturation is not about punishing colonizers, but rather promoting the valuation of indigenous ancestors, reverting the benefits to current indigenous causes. "We should never imput responsibility to the Portuguese of the new generation for crimes committed by their ancestors - respect and plurality are the basis of successful acculturation"

Opportunities and situations (see Belk, 1975) in new cultural settings may also influence the individual consumption acculturation. Consumer behavior and consumer acculturation may be conceived as "all cultural". The many cultural influences reflected in learned values, attitudes, knowledge, behavior and opportunities exposed toBare of utmost importance for the individual¦s consumption activities. The various barriers and incentives to consumer acculturation can be related to two cultures, i.e., the culture of origin and the new culture encountered . Based on the above discussion the following perspective can be introduced.

Figure 1 is to be read as follows. Barriers and incentives are hypothetical constructs. A variety of factors related to the culture of origin and the new culture encountered can be perceived as barriers and incentives for the individual in her or his consumer acculturation process, influencing the amount, aspects and speed of acculturation of consumption activities. Characteristics of the contact with the new culture, such as length, intensity, and quality may modify the effect of the various incentives and barriers.

Influencing Factors and Propositions

Our next step is to identify various classes of cultural related elements [Note the width of "cultural elements" encompassing cultural learned values, attitudes, knowledge, behavior as well as the context, including institutions, social settings and so on in which the individual is embedded, where her or his cultural learning is shaped.], and discuss how such elements mediated through the individual can be related to the hypothetical constructs and subsequent consumer acculturation. It should also be noted that it is the differences in culture that may lead to changes in prior learned culture elements and cause consumer acculturation. In the following, we proceed by first considering broader cultural issues, and then by focusing on more specific aspects and their relevance for consumer acculturation. The factors to be discussed are grouped as follows:

B Cultural characteristics; i.e., aspects characterizing cultures as a whole;

B Structural elements; i.e., more stable (permanent) aspects of the cultural context influencing the individual;

B Language and symbols; i.e., basic aspects of cultural learning;

B Cultural values; i.e., cultural learned beliefs which the individual find personally and socially worth striving for (see Rokeach, 1968);

B The social (cultural) context, in which socialization and consumer learning takes place.

B Roles and situations occurring in social cultural contexts assumed to influence consumption activities, and thus consumer acculturation;

B Some personal correlates, assumed to possess descriptive and predictive power for consumer acculturation.

FIGURE 1

Consumer Acculturation Perspective

1. Cultural Characteristics

Cultures are characterized and classified in several ways. We in no way intend to review this literature, but will restrict ourselves to consider the following aspects: cultural prestige (or rank order); cultural context (high vs. low); cultural distance; and cultural awareness.

a) Belonging to a specific culture gives identity. When confronted with other cultures, a rank order of the cultures may be established. Belonging to one culture may be perceived more attractive than being associated with the other. For examples, at the turn of the century it was observed among white immigrants e.g. from Scandinavia when coming to America, the land of hope, they did their utmost to hide their cultural origin. They never looked back, and tried as fast as possible to adapt to this new cultural environment. Thus, a positive gap in perceived attractiveness between the new culture and the culture of origin, may be considered as a force enhancing acculturation, leading to the following proposition:

P1: The more attractive the new cultural environment is perceived (compared with the culture of origin), the more rapidly will acculturation, and thus acculturation of consumption activities take place.

b) A crucial dimension of culture is the context of communication, (often dichotomized as "high" versus "low", Hall, 1976). In low cultural contexts, communication is more explicit, relying on explicit verbal communication and symbols. High cultural contexts in contrast depend more on non-verbal, "hidden" aspects of communication. Crossing cultural contexts represent changes, requiring tremendous amount of new knowledge in order to adapt. Our contention is that acculturation will take place more rapidly within similar contexts of communication, than across such contexts. On the other hand, it is believed that less strain is involved in moving from a high to a low cultural context is higher than the other way around. Thus it is postulated that:

P2: (a) Consumer acculturation will take place more rapidly within than across cultural contexts of communication.

(b) Consumer acculturation is more likely to occur when moving from high to low than will be the case when moving from low to high cultural contexts.

To our knowledge, no research has been conducted that directly examines these propositions. On the other hand, in business there seems to be considerable evidence that business people from high cultural context adapt more easily to low cultural environments (e.g., Japanese doing business in the U.S.), than do business people when moving from low to high cultural contexts (e.g., Americans dealing with Japan).

c) Several attempts have been made to scale cultures according to degree of similarity (or difference), i.e. cultural distance (e.g., Hofstede, 1984). Cultural distance reflects degree of difference. Intuitively it is so that the more similar, the less dramatic are the changes to absorb elements from a new culture. Thus we postulate that:

P3: The smaller the distance between the new culture and the culture of origin, the more likely and the more rapidly consumer acculturation will occur.

d) Viewed in a historical perspective, cultural awareness (pride) has been rapidly increasing the last few years among minorities and immigrants in the U.S., as well as other places around the world. For instance, a study conducted among Hispanics living in the U.S., showed that 89% strongly agreed with the statement, "We should pass on to our children a sense of belonging to our religions and national tradition" (Yankelovich, Skelly and White, 1981, p. 16).

It has for long been recognized that acculturated minorities retain specific elements of their culture of origin, which can be seen as a characteristic of the American 'melting pot'," or as recently stated by Iacocca (1984), ". . . Except to the American Indians, we're all immigrants or children of immigrants. So it's important that we go beyond the stereotypes we've lived with. . . . All the ethnic groups brought their culture, their music, their literature. They melted into the American pot - . . . but somehow they also managed to keep their cultures intact as each rubbed off on the other" (p. 356). Cultural awareness (pride) addresses that it is important to conserve specific elements from the culture of origin. With regard to consumer acculturation we will propose:

P4: The higher the cultural awareness (pride) is related to specific consumption related activities/elements, the higher the likelihood that these elements will be retained when encountering a new cultural context.

For example, food is important to man, and the symbolic meaning attributed to the preparing and consumption of food vary across culture (cf. Levi-Strauss, 1978). In many cultures food and eating-related events are attributed great importance, which is easily observed among immigrants Band children of immigrants Bsticking to the eating habits acquired in their cultures of origin, not only decades, but generations ago.

2. Structural Elements

Any culture contains a variety of structural elements, influencing the content of cultural learning. Here we will focus on two structural characteristics, the cultural product/service environment and the structure of channels of information (media).

A dinner promoted by SENAC in Campos do Jordão, Indigenous food was harmonized with Cauim - Luiz Pagano's acculturation proposal is regarded to celebration of science in a new Multi Ethnic Brazil - In the photo Hildo Sena, Creator of the Cauim Enzymatic Method, the Indigenous chef of the Terena ethnicity Kalymaracaya and Luiz Pagano, creator of Tupi-Pop culture and the Japanese Cauim Method "celebrating culture is better than imposing it with violence"

a) An important aspect of any culture is the product/service environment in which the consumer is embedded, influencing the individual¦s socialization as consumer (Grunhaug and Venkatesh, 1987). Moving to another culture often implies changes in the product/service environment for the individual. The consumer may be confronted with new, unknown goods, and many of the goods acquainted with, will not be there. The lack of known products and services may lead to more or less conscious search for and evaluation of substituting alternatives. Intuitively, the more important the no longer available products and services are, and the more attractive the substituting consumption alternatives (and/or consumption practice) are perceived to be, the more likely that they will be adopted. Hence, the following propositions:

P5: (a) The more important specific consumption alternatives adopted in the culture of origin and no longer available, the more willing the individual will be to search for, evaluate and adopt substituting consumption alternatives in the new cultural environment, and

(b) the more attractive new consumption alternatives are to the consumer, the more likely that these alternatives will be adopted.

The easily observable adjustment to the American product/service environment suggests that consumption alternatives are readily available, and that the alternatives are perceived as attractive, often superior to what the newcomers are used to (as it is often observed that even when products and services from the culture of origin are available, they are substituted with alternatives new to the newcomers).

It should also be noted that consumption alternatives may be acquired through different markets, such as "the open market" (i.e., commercialized markets) and "closed markets" (e.g., exchanges taking place between neighbors, Grunhaug and Dholakia, 1987). Open market exchanges (probably) represent a larger fraction of the total amount of exchanges made by consumers in developed than in developing countries. "Open" markets are easier to enter than "closed" markets, (but often other exchange media, i.e., money versus personal services/products are needed in order to operate in this market). Hence, we suggest that:

c) Consumer acculturation will be positively related to the relative occurrence of open market exchanges in the new culture confronted with.

This proposition also implies that consumption activities mediated through open market exchanges in the new cultural environment, will be adopted more rapidly than consumption activities mediated through non-open markets.

b) Information needed to learn a new cultural environment is mediated through information channels. The greater the exposure to and the more available is relevant information, the more rapidly acculturation will take place, thus:

P6: (a) The more exposure to and the more accessible is the relevant information, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will occur.

The media structure as such will be of importance as new information is spread more rapidly and to a larger public through mass media than through personal communication. This implies that in societies where relevant [By relevance it is meant that the newcomer has access to and is capable to make use of the media.] mass media plays an important role, changes will take place more rapidly compared to societies where mass media plays a less dominant role (cf. Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983, chap. 5). Hence, we suggest that:

(b) The more dominant is mass media communication of the total communication in the new cultural environment, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will take place (given that the mass media are relevant to the newcomer).

From this (P6b) also follows that:

(c) Consumption activities exposed in mass media communication will be learned and acquired more rapidly than consumption activities primarily mediated through personal sources of communication.

When turning our attention to the American scene it is evident that the most attention is devoted to brands in mass media marketing communication, and less mass media exposure is devoted to use, disposal and emphasizing the social meaning of goods, which mainly is learned through experiences, observations and through personal communication with others. Thus we will hypothesize that:

(d) Knowledge of brand alternative and brand attributes is acquired more rapidly in a new culture, than is knowledge of use, disposal, and the symbolic meaning of products and services.

O'Guinn et al. (1986) also made the following interesting observation:

"Consumer acculturation via the mass media offers a safer way and less riskier path than direct contact. One doesn't have to worry about making embarrassing mistakes when one doesn't interact." (p. 582)

The perceived credibility of the various channels of information is an important modifying factor. As the perceived credibility of various sources of information may vary, it is proposed:

(e) The higher the perceived credibility of the source of communication, the more emphasis will be placed on this source.

From this proposion also follows that, the more credibility is attributed to mass media (in mass media dominated cultures), the more rapidly will consumer acculturation take place in such environments.

3. Language and Symbols

Cultural knowledge is mediated through symbols, such as signs, letters and words. Here we will focus on language and the symbolic meaning of consumption activities.

a) Languages represent the prime means of communication. To fully understand and have command over a language is a time consuming learning process. Moving to another culture with language(s) different from the language(s) being used in the culture of origin intuitively represents a barrier for acculturation to take place. Lack of language skills in the new cultural environment hampers access to new information and the learning of the new cultural context, thus:

Once the Cauim market exists and has matured through the correct process of acculturation, villages and indigenous reserves could benefit from the commercialization of their own Industrial Cauim - "the villages and reserves have been heavily attacked by illegal squatter (grileiros), miners, loggers and farmers - with the financial resources generated by the sale of Cauim, they would have an additional strength in this fight, increasingly unequal, hiring lawyers and even with the proper dissemination of their culture, supported by the work of sociologists and ambassadors of their own ethnicity ".

P7: (a) Consumer acculturation will occur more rapidly among newcomers with relevant language skills than among newcomers lacking such skills.

And among newcomers without the culture relevant language skills it follows that:

(b) The more rapidly relevant language skills are acquired, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will take place, (because language are institutionally linked with other acculturation activities).

b) Products and services convey symbolic meaning as noted by Levy (1959) in his recognized Harvard Business Review article three decades ago, "Symbols for Sale". Consumption activities convey symbolic meaning. The importance of symbolic meaning of activities and material goods to the individual has for long been recognizedBand researched in disciplines like social anthropology (e.g., Goffman, 1959; Mauss, 1967, 1925) and sociology (e.g., Veblen, 1899), but has until recently only been devoted modest attention in marketing and consumer behavior research (see Wallendorf and Arnold, 1988 for an excellent review of prior research efforts). The symbolic meaning of consumption activities is learned in social settings, and they vary across cultures. Much of this knowledge is "personal", acquired through observations, interactions and personal experience not easily conveyed to others (cf. Polanyi, 1958). Entering a new cultural context implies that much of the prior learned symbolic meaning of consumption activities will be obsolete. Due to the "personal" ("tacit") characteristic of such learning, it is assumed that:

P8: (a) The symbolic meaning of consumption activities is more difficult to acquire than is knowledge about brands and brand attributes.

It is believed that learning of the symbolic meaning of consumption activities, (which is an important aspect of consumer acculturation) will occur at a slower pace than will the familiarizing with and adoption of products in the new culture. Even though this proposition has not been directly tested in prior research, several studies reveal that various minorities groups attribute different values and meanings to consumption activities which is also reflected in the composition of their consumption patterns. From this also follows that:

(b) Learning of consumption symbolism will be positively related to degree of involvement in social consumption settings in the new culture.

This (P8b) is easily observable among immigrant families, where the youngsters, i.e., the most socially involved in the new culture, more rapidly recognize the symbolic aspects of consumption activities, than do the older family members. [The more rapid socialization among children, has also been recognized to lead to parental pressure on the child to be a "bridge" for the parents in the new culture (Endicott, 1984); i.e., what Reisman and Rosenborough (1955) have termed "reversed socialization."] It should, however, be noted as reported by Belk et al. (1980), that the ability to recognize the symbolic social aspects of consumption activities is minimal among preschoolers, but almost fully developed by sixth grade, i.e., probably the age when newcomers interact most easily and the most in a new cultural context, and when the importance of peers become most important (Coleman, 1961).

4. Cultural Values

An important aspect of any culture are the values held by the individuals embedded in the actual culture. Values are learned in cultural contexts; they are considered to be more stable than are attitudes and meanings. They can be changed, but only slowly. The individual holds several (many) values, all of which are not equally important to her or him, and they guide behavior (cf. Assael, 1984). Moreover, a considerable amount of research has demonstrated that values differ across cultures. Consumptions values are mirrored in consumption activities. For example, in a study on societal consumption, Fuat and Dholakia (1982) characterized the consumption values in developed Western countries as "passive, individualistic, private and alienated" (p. 12), contrasted with consumer values in other cultures emphasizing "activity, collectivity and togetherness". In returning to our point of departure, i.e. differences between the culture of origin and the new culture encountered, we propose that:

P9: (a) The more different are the consumption values in the culture of origin and the new culture, the lower the probability that changes in consumer values will take place, and

(b) the more important the value(s) aquired in the culture of origin is(are) to the newcomer, the lower the probability that consumer acculturation implying change of values will occur.

The strongly held value among groups of immigrants, "not to eat meat," apparently leads to the consequence that the majority of immigrants holding this value does not line up for a "Big Mac". In a similar vain consumption related values to fast at specific times, and not to drink alcohol strongly direct the consumption behavior of Muslims even in cultures where alcoholic beverages are flooding, socially accepted, and used in an almost ritualistic manner in a variety of social settings.

5. The Social Context

Values and norms are transmitted in social-cultural context. Extensive research has demonstrated the tremendous importance of family and peers in the socializing of individuals. Closeness and tightness of social relationships are important for social learning, enforcement and internalization of norms. The family has been noted to be the key agent of influence for Hispanics (cf. Guernica, 1982; Hoyer and Despande, 1982) and Japanese (Shigaki, 1983) living in the United States. The importance of family influences is probably higher in these cultures (Hispanic and Japaneses) than are the family influences in the American culture, indicating that traditional norms and values are more firmly held among Mexican and Japanese than among Americans. The importance of social relationships for consumer acculturation can be stated as follows:

P10: (a) The tighter the social structure in the country of origin, the more the learned values, norms, expectations and behavior will exert influence on the individual, leading to deterrence of acculturation being in conflict with prior learned consumption values, norms, expectations and behavior.

Often the newcomer (the immigrant) will meet members of his/her culture of origin in the new culture. For example, inspection of statistics of immigration shows that more than 18% of the 61,000 legal Mexican immigrants that came to the U.S. in 1985 settled in the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and San Diego, while only .7% of these immigrants went to New York. In contrast, almost 49% of the Jamaican immigrants settled in the New York area (Bureau of Census 1987, table 32). Meeting people from one's own culture will probably make immigration less stressful, but may influence consumer acculturation as well. Existence of a "critical mass" of members from the culture of origin in the new setting, implies that much of the previous learned values, norms and behavior are still valid, thus:

(b) Existence of a "critical mass" of members from the culture of origin in the new culture context decreases the probability of consumer acculturation to take place (for consumption activities different from those in the culture of origin where these are still held among the "critical mass" in the new culture).

The existence of immigrant communities in the U.S., such as Chinatown (in several cities) and Little Italy, where the languages of the immigrants are spoken and life is lived very much as it is in their homelands, clearly support this proposition. The following excerpt illustrates this point:

"Many of the Latino children tend to speak to each other in Spanish, while the Asian children speak English among themselves as often as their native language. That's because all the Hispanic children, whether they are from Mexico, Peru, Honduras or anywhere, can speak that one language, Spanish,' Blazey explained. `But the Asian children may come from Vietnam, or Cambodia, or another country, and every one of those countries has a different language. They have to speak English to communicate with one another. (Los Angeles Times, July 17, 1989, p.7)

6. Roles and Situations

a) The individual plays a variety of roles in everyday life (cf. Goffman, 1959). Role-playing (as on stage) is related to expectations and performance of activities. When moving into a new culture, new roles have to be learned, and the individual may meet new demands to prior learned roles as well. The learning of new roles and role demands will often have implications for consumer acculturation. For instance, getting a job in the new culture may require a new way of dressing, eating at different times and so on. We propose that:

P11: (a) New roles and role demands involving consumption activities will enforce consumer acculturation (related to these roles); and

(b) the more central this(these) role(s) is(are) to the newcomer, the more rapidly will the acculturation of role relevant consumption activities take place.

b) The importance of situational influences on consumer behavior has for long been recognized in consumer research (e.g., Belk, 1975). Consumption situations are multiple and can be classified in a variety of ways. Important situational aspects for consumer acculturation are related to the extent to which they occur in the presence of members of the new culture, and the social pressure to behave as expected in these situations (cf. Asch, 1953). From this follows:

P12: (a) Situations involving consumption activities in the presence of members of the new culture, will enforce the adoption (acculturation) of consumption activities in such situations, and

(b) such situational consumer acculturation will be positively related to the perceived importance of the situation and the perceived importance to conform.

The following excerpt from an interview with a Japanese manager illustrates elements of the above propositions:

". . . He quickly learned how to span the uncomfortable gap between Japanese and American society. . . . Katashiba goes by Ken and decorates his home Western-style. At home, his family speaks only Japanese and eats primarily rice and fish. . ." (USA Today, July 15, 1988, p. 2B).

7. Some Personal Correlates

Several personal factors have been examined in prior research on acculturation (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980) and consumer socialization (see Moschis, 1986 for an overview of findings). Here we will focus on motivation, learning (stock of knowledge), education, age and sex.

a) Motivation refers to the process of factors (motives) that influence people to act. There are several theories of motivation. McClelland's (1970) theory of social learned needs for achievement suggests, for instance;

P13: The higher the needs for achievement and affiliation, the higher the probability that acculturation of consumption activities will occur in new cultural contexts, and the more rapidly such acculturation will take place.

This proposition is consistent with the observation that immigrants with specific goals in mind, e.g., getting an education or making a business career, more quickly acquire relevant skills, such as language and business manners than do others.

b) The individual's learning capacity is of importance for consumer acculturation. An important aspect of learning is the stock of knowledge possessed by the individual. Previous research has demonstrated that immigrants' stock of knowledge and cultural learned behaviors from prior socialization, affect consumer acculturation, e.g. which goods and in what priority they are adopted, as reflected in their expenditures patterns (Reid, 1986). One explanation is that prior knowledge serves as a benchmark according to which the new consumption environment is compared, and that changes (i.e., acculturation) will occur according to perceived barriers (cost of change) and incentives to change as emphasized above (cf. Figure 1).

c) Education has been found to be a prime determinant of acculturation in prior research (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980). O'Guinn and Meyer (1983/84) also noted that Hispanic immigrants preferring Spanish language radio and TV, and speaking Spanish at home were lower in education compared to those (Hispanics) preferring English media and language. Education, per se, implies formal training emphasizing symbolic representation and problem solving. The educational process itself also represents an important source of socialization emphasizing openness, new concepts and change. Thus educational training makes the individual more capable and motivated for change, as repeatedly has been demonstrated in the literature on adoption of innovations (see Rogers, 1983). Thus we suggest that:

P14: Amount and speed of consumer acculturation will be positively correlated with level of formal education.

d) Prior studies on acculturation has shown that youngsters more rapidly adapt to new cultural environments (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980). Why this is the case may be explained in a variety of ways. Chronological age is related to the amount and content of prior learning. In many societies, age is negatively related to education (when considering larger population segments, due to increasing rate of education the last decades), but may also be negatively related to opportunities to learn new cultures, and positively related to amount of contact with members of culture of origin. Age can thus be conceived as an indicator of several factors which may be related to acculturation to take place in new cultural settings.

e) Sex as a factor in the process of acculturation has to some extent been focused upon in prior research (see Padilla, 1980). A huge body of research has demonstrated that women and men are socialized into different roles; and that sex role expectations and learning of such roles vary across cultures (and social classes). Thus prior role expectations and learning, (which also may include formal education, as education is considered less appropriate for women than men in many cultures) and thus expectations and opportunities in the new culture, may attribute to differences in cultural acculturation across sexes.

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Sunday, January 31, 2021

How the Rosetta Stone was translated

 



The word hieroglyphic that is used to describe the symbols, icons and index of ancient Egyptians comes from the Greek: ἱερός (Hieros) "sacred" and γλύφειν (glýphein) "written". Only the priests, royalty, seniors, and scribes knew the art of reading and writing these "sacred" signs.


It is a well known fact that Champollion was the first to decode the hieroglyphs, but nobody talks about the exact process he used to associate the scriptures in Greek, using the Coptic (language spoken in the convent of St Catherine in Monte Sinai) as a means of translating the ancient Egyptian in details.

It is important to know that at the age of 16, he had already mastered six ancient Oriental languages, in addition to Latin and Greek, and delivered a paper before the academy of Grenoble, France, in which he asserted, incorrectly, that Coptic was the ancient language of Egypt.

The hieroglyphic writing is probably the oldest organized system of writing in the world; it was originally used for formal inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs. With the time it progressed to more simplified forms, like the hieratic, a cursive variant that could be painted on papyrus or printed in clay tablets, and even later, with the increasing Greek influence in the Middle East, writing evolved into Demotic, phase where the initial hieroglyphs were very stylized, even with a few signs written in Greek.

The stone have the same text written in old Egyptian language, with scripts in hieroglyphs, demotic which are read from right to left, and also in Greek using greek alphabet


Many others had unsuccessfully tried to decipher the hieroglyphs, the old interpretations were much more oriented to the mystical school (quite mistaken) rather than to the scientific school. 





First he read the original text in greek:

1ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΝΕΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΡΑΛΑΒΟΝΤΟΣ ΤΗΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΝ ΠΑΡΑ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΔΟΞΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΤΗΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΗΣΑΜΕΝΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΥΣ

1. In the reign of the young one who has succeeded his father in the kingship, lord of diadems, most glorious, who has established Egypt and is pious

2ΘΕΟΥΣ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΑΝΤΙΠΑΛΩΝ ΥΠΕΡΤΕΡΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΤΟΝ ΒΙΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΩΝ ΕΠΑΝΟΡΘΟΣΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΥ ΤΡΙΑΚΟΝΤΑΕΤΗΡΙΔΩΝ ΚΑΘΑΠΕΡ Ο ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ Ο ΜΕΓΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΚΑΘΑΠΕΡ Ο ΗΛΙΟΣ

2. Towards the gods, triumphant over his enemies, who has restored the civilised life of men, lord of the Thirty Years Festivals, even as Hephaistos the Great, a king like the Sun,

3ΜΕΓΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΤΕ ΑΝΩ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΩΝ ΧΩΡΩΝ ΕΚΓΟΝΟΥ ΘΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΩΝ ΟΝ Ο ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΣ ΕΔΟΚΙΜΑΣΕΝ ΩΙ Ο ΗΛΙΟΣ ΕΔΩΚΕΝ ΤΗΝ ΝΙΚΗΝ ΕΙΚΟΝΟΣ ΖΩΣΗΣ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟΣ ΥΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΟΥ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ

3. Great king of the Upper and Lower countries, offspring of the Gods Philopatores, one of whom Hephaistos has approved, to whom the Sun has given victory, the living image of Zeus, son of the Sun, Ptolemy

4ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΟΥ ΗΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΟΥ ΥΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΦΘΑ ΕΤΟΥΣ ΕΝΑΤΟΥ ΕΦ ΙΕΡΕΩΣ ΑΕΤΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΑΕΤΟΥ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΩΝ ΣΩΤΗΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΩΝ ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΩΝ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ

4. Living for ever, beloved of Ptah, in the ninth year, when Aetos son of Aetos was priest of Alexander, and the Gods Soteres, and the Gods Adelphoi, and the Gods Euergetai, and the Gods Philopatores and

5ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΥ ΑΘΛΟΦΟΡΟΥ ΒΕΡΕΝΙΚΗΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΙΔΟΣ ΠΥΡΡΑΣ ΤΗΣ ΦΙΛΙΝΟΥ ΚΑΝΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΣΙΝΟΗΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΑΡΕΙΑΣ ΤΗΣ ΔΙΟΓΕΝΟΥΣ ΙΕΡΕΙΑΣ ΑΡΣΙΝΟΗΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΙΡΗΝΗΣ

5. The God Epiphanes Eucharistos; Pyrrha daughter of Philinos being Athlophoros of Berenike Euergetis; Areia daughter of Diogenes being Kanephoros of Arsinoe Philadelphos; Irene

6ΤΗΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΜΗΝΟΣ ΞΑΝΔΙΚΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΔΙ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΙΩΝ ΔΕ ΜΕΧΕΙΡ ΟΚΤΩ ΚΑΙ ΔΕΚΑΤΗΙ ΨΗΦΙΣΜΑ ΟΙ ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΦΗΤΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΑΔΥΤΟΝ ΕΙΞΠΟΡΕΥΟΜΕΝ ΟΙ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΣΤΟΛΙΣΜΟΝ ΤΩΝ

6. Daughter of Ptolemy being Priestess of Arsinoe Philopator; the fourth of the month of Xandikos, according to the Egyptians the 18th Mekhir. DECREE. There being assembled the Chief Priests and Prophets and those who enter the inner shrine for the robing of the

7ΘΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΤΕΡΟΦΟΡΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΙΕΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΑΛΛΟΙ ΙΕΡΕΙΣ ΠΑΝΤΕΣ ΟΙ ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΑΝΤΕΣ ΕΚ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΧΩΡΑΝ ΙΕΡΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΜΕΜΦΙΝ ΤΩΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΙΝ ΤΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΛΗΨΕΩΣ ΤΗΣ

7. Gods, and the Fan-bearers and the Sacred Scribes and all the other priests from the temples throughout the land who have come to meet the king at Memphis, for the feast of the assumption

8ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΟΥ ΗΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΟΥ ΥΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΦΘΑ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΥ ΗΝ ΠΑΡΕΛΑΒΕΝ ΠΑΡΑ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΣΥΝΑΧΘΕΝΤΕΣ ΕΝ ΤΩΙ ΕΝ ΜΕΜΦΕΙ ΙΕΡΩΙ ΤΗΙ ΗΜΕΡΑΙ ΤΑΥΤΗΙ ΕΙΠΑΝ

8. By Ptolemy, the ever-living, the beloved of Ptah, the God Epiphanes Eucharistos, the kingship in which he succeeded his father, they being assembled in the temple in Memphis this day declared:

9ΕΠΕΙΔΗ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΣ ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΟΣ ΗΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΟΣ ΥΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΦΘΑ ΘΕΟΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΗΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ Ο ΕΚ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΑΡΣΙΝΟΗΣ ΘΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΩΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΠΟΛΛΑ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΗΚΕΝ ΤΑ Θ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ

9. Whereas king Ptolemy, the ever-living, the beloved of Ptah, the god Epiphanes Eucharistos, the son of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoe, the Gods Philopatores, has been a benefactor both to the temples and

10ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΑΥΤΟΙΣ ΟΝΤΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΥΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΝ ΤΑΣΣΟΜΕΝΟΥΣ ΑΠΑΝΤΑΣ ΥΠΑΡΧΩΝ ΘΕΟΣ ΕΚ ΘΕΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΑΣ ΚΑΘΑΠΕΡ ΩΡΟΣ Ο ΤΗΣ ΙΣΙΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΣΙΡΙΟΣ ΥΙΟΣ Ο ΕΠΑΜΥΝΑΣ ΤΩΙ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΟΣΙΡΕΙ ΤΑ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΕΟΥΣ

10. To those who dwell in them, as well as all those who are his subjects, being a god sprung from a god and goddess (like Horus the son of Isis and Osiris, who avenged his father Osiris) (and) being benevolently disposed towards

11ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΙΚΩΣ ΔΙΑΚΕΙΜΕΝΟΣ ΑΝΑΤΕΘΕΙΚΕΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΚΑΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΣΙΤΙΚΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΟΔΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΑΠΑΝΑΣ ΠΟΛΛΑΣ ΥΠΟΜΕΜΕΝΗΚΕΝ ΕΝΕΚΑ ΤΟΥ ΤΗΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΝ ΕΙΣ ΕΥΔΙΑΝ ΑΓΑΓΕΙΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΗΣΘΑΙ

11. The gods, has dedicated to the temples revenues in money and corn and has undertaken much outlay to bring Egypt into prosperity, and to establish the temples,

12ΤΑΙΣ ΤΕ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΣΙΝ ΠΕΦΙΛΑΝΔΡΩΠΗΚΕ ΚΑΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΩΝ ΥΠΑΡΧΟΥΣΩΝ ΕΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΠΡΟΣΟΔΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΦΟΡΟΛΟΓΙΩΝ ΤΙΝΑΣ ΜΕΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΑΦΗΚΕΝ ΑΛΛΑΣ ΔΕ ΚΕΚΟΥΦΙΚΕΝ ΟΠΩΣ Ο ΤΕ ΛΑΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΑΛΛΟΙ ΠΑΝΤΕΣ ΕΝ

12. And has been generous with all his own means; and of the revenues and taxes levied in Egypt some he has wholly remitted and others he has lightened, in order that the people and all the others might be

13ΕΥΘΗΝΙΑΙ ΩΣΙΝ ΕΠΙ ΤΗΣ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΤΑ ΤΕ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΑ ΟΦΕΙΛΗΜΑΤΑ Α ΠΡΟΣΟΦΕΙΛΟΝ ΟΙ ΕΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΛΟΙΠΗΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΟΝΤΑ ΠΟΛΛΑ ΤΩΙ ΠΛΗΘΕΙ ΑΦΗΚΕΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΦΥΛΑΚΑΙΣ

13. In prosperity during his reign; and whereas he has remitted the debts to the crown being many in number which they in Egypt and in the rest of the kingdom owed; and whereas those who were

14ΑΠΗΓΜΕΝΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΑΙΤΙΑΙΣ ΟΝΤΑΣ ΕΚ ΠΟΛΛΟΥ ΧΡΟΝΟΥ ΑΠΕΛΥΣΕ ΤΩΝ ΕΓΚΕΚΛΗΜΕΝΩΝ ΠΡΟΣΕΤΑΞΕ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΟΔΟΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΙΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΔΙΔΟΜΕΝΑΣ ΕΙΣ ΑΥΤΑ ΚΑΤ ΕΝΙΑΥΤΟΝ ΣΥΝΤΑΞΕΙΣ ΣΙΤΙ

14. In prison and those who were under accusation for a long time, he has freed of the charges against them; and whereas he has directed that the gods shall continue to enjoy the revenues of the temples and the yearly allowances given to them, both of

15ΚΑΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΚΑΣ ΟΜΟΙΩΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΚΑΘΗΚΟΥΣΑΣ ΑΠΟΜΟΙΡΑΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΘΕΟΙΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΕ ΤΗΣ ΑΜΠΕΛΙΤΙΔΟΣ ΓΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΣΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΥΠΑΡΧΑΝΤΩΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΘΕΟΙΣ ΕΠΙ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΥ

15. Corn and money, likewise also the revenue assigned to the gods from vine land and from gardens and the other properties which belonged to the gods in his father’s time;

16ΜΕΝΕΙΝ ΕΠΙ ΧΩΡΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΕΤΑΞΕΝ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ ΙΕΡΕΩΝ ΟΠΩΣ ΜΗΘΕΝ ΠΛΕΙΟΝ ΔΙΔΩΣΙΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΤΕΛΕΣΤΙΚΟΝ ΟΥ[Κ] ΕΤΑΣΣΟΝΤΟ ΕΩΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΡΩΤΟΥ ΕΤΟΥΣ ΕΠΙ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΑΠΕΛΥΣΕΝ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΚ ΤΩΝ

16. And whereas he directed also, with regard to the priests, that they should pay no more as the tax for admission to the priesthood than what was appointed them throughout his father’s reign and until the first year of his own reign; and has relieved the members of the

17ΙΕΡΩΝ ΕΘΝΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΤ ΕΝΙΑΥΤΟΝ ΕΙΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΑΝ ΚΑΤΑΠΛΟΥ ΠΡΟΣΕΤΑΞΕΝ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΣΥΛΛΗΨΙΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΝΑΥΤΕΙΑΝ ΜΗ ΠΟΙΕΙΣΘΑΙ ΤΩΝ Τ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΟΥΜΕΝΩΝ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ

17. Priestly orders from the yearly journey to Alexandria; and whereas he has directed that impressment for the navy shall no longer be employed; and of the tax in byssus cloth paid by the temples to the crown he

18ΟΘΟΝΙΩΝ ΑΠΕΛΥΣΕΝ ΤΑ ΔΥΟ ΜΕΡΗ ΤΑ ΤΕ ΕΚΛΕΛΕΙΜΜΕΝΑ ΠΑΝΤΑ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΠΡΟΤΕΡΟΝ ΧΡΟΝΟΙΣ ΑΠΟΚΑΤΕΣΤΗΣΕΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΚΑΘΗΚΟΥΣΑΝ ΤΑΞΙΝ ΦΡΟΝΤΙΖΩΝ ΟΠΩΣ ΤΑ ΕΙΘΙΣΜΕΝΑ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΗΤΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΘΕΟΙΣ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΟ

18. Has remitted two-thirds; and whatever things were neglected in former times he has restored to their proper condition, having a care how the traditional duties shall be fittingly paid to the gods;

19ΠΡΟΣΗΚΩΝ ΟΜΟΙΩΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΝ ΠΑΣΙΝ ΑΠΕΝΕΙΜΕΝ ΚΑΘΑΠΕΡ ΕΡΜΗΣ Ο ΜΕΓΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΓΑΣ ΠΡΟΣΕΤΑΞΕΝ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΚΑΤΑΠΟΡΕΥΟΜΕΝΟΥΣ ΕΚ ΤΕ ΤΩΝ ΜΑΧΙΜΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΟΤΡΙΑ

19. And likewise has apportioned justice to all, like Hermes the great and great; and has ordained that those who return of the warrior class, and of others who were unfavourably

20ΦΡΟΝΗΣΑΝΤΩΝ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΤΑΡΑΧΗΝ ΚΑΙΡΟΙΣ ΚΑΤΕΛΘΟΝΤΑΣ ΜΕΝΕΙΝ ΕΠΟ ΤΩΝ ΙΔΙΩΝ ΚΤΗΣΕΩΝ ΠΡΟΕΝΟΗΘΗ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΟΠΩΣ ΕΞΑΠΟΣΤΑΛΩΣΙΝ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΙΣ ΙΠΠΙΚΑΙ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΖΙΚΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΝΗΕΣ ΕΠΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΠΕΛΘΟΝΤΑΣ

20. Disposed in the days of the disturbances, should, on their return be allowed to occupy their old possessions; and whereas he provided that cavalry and infantry forces and ships should be sent out against those who invaded

21ΕΠΙ ΤΗΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΕ ΤΗΝ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΑΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΗΠΕΙΡΟΝ ΥΠΟΜΕΙΝΑΣ ΔΑΠΑΝΑΣ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΚΑΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΣΙΤΙΚΑΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΑΣ ΟΠΩΣ ΤΑ Θ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΕΝ ΑΥΤΗΙ ΠΑΝΤΕΣ ΕΝ ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑΙ ΩΣΙΝ ΠΑΡΑΓΙΝΟΜΕ

21. Egypt by sea and by land, laying out great sums in money and corn in order that the temples and all those who are in the land might be in safety; and having

22ΝΟΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΣ ΛΥΚΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΝ ΤΗΝ ΕΝ ΤΩΙ ΒΟΥΣΙΡΙΤΗΙ Η ΗΝ ΚΑΤΕΙΛΗΜΜΕΝΗ ΚΑΙ ΩΧΥΡΩΜΕΝΗ ΠΡΟΣ ΠΟΛΙΟΡΚΙΑΝ ΟΠΛΩΝ ΤΕ ΠΑΡΑΘΕΣΕΙ ΔΑΨΙΛΕΣΤΕΡΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΙ ΑΛΛΗΙ ΧΟΡΗΓΙΑΙ ΠΑΣΗΙ ΩΣ ΑΝ ΕΚ ΠΟΛΛΟΥ

22. Gone to Lycopolis in the Busirite nome, which had been occupied and fortified against a siege with an abundant store of weapons, and all other supplies (seeing that disaffection was now of long

23ΧΡΟΝΟΥ ΣΥΝΕΣΤΗΚΥΙΑΣ ΤΗΣ ΑΛΛΟΤΡΙΟΤΗΤΟΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΕΠΙΣΥΝΑΧΘΕΙΣΙΝ ΕΙΣ ΑΥΤΗΝ ΑΣΕΒΕΣΙΝ ΟΙ ΗΣΑΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΕ ΤΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΚΑΤΟΙΚΟΥΝΤΑΣ ΠΟΛΛΑ ΚΑΚΑ ΣΥΝΤΕΤΕΛΕΣΜΕΝΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΑΝ

23. Standing among the impious men gathered into it, who had perpetrated much damage to the temples and to all the inhabitants of Egypt), and having

24ΤΙΚΑΘΙΣΑΣ ΧΩΜΑΣΙΝ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΑΦΡΟΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΕΣΙΝ ΑΥΤΗΝ ΑΞΙΟΛΟΓΟΙΣ ΠΕΡΙΕΛΑΒΕΝ ΤΟΥ ΤΕ ΝΕΙΛΟΥ ΤΗΝ ΑΝΑΒΑΣΙΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΗΝ ΠΟΙΗΣΑΜΕΝΟΥ ΕΝ ΤΩΙ ΟΓΔΟΩΙ ΕΤΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΘΙΣΜΕΝΟΥ ΚΑΤΑΚΛΥΖΕΙΝ ΤΑ

24. Encamped against it, he surrounded it with mounds and trenches and elaborate fortifications; when the Nile made a great rise in the eighth year (of his reign), whichusually floods the

25ΠΕΔΙΑ ΚΑΤΕΣΧΕΝ ΕΚ ΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΤΟΠΩΝ ΟΧΥΡΩΣΑΣ ΤΑ ΣΤΟΜΑΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΤΑΜΩΝ ΧΟΡΗΓΗΣΑΣ ΕΙΣ ΑΥΤΑ ΧΡΗΜΑΤΩΝ ΠΛΗΘΟΣ ΟΥΚ ΟΛΙΓΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΗΣΑΣ ΙΠΠΕΙΣ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΖΟΥΣ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΗΙ ΦΥΛΑΚΗΙ

25. Plains, he prevented it, by damming at many points the outlets of the channels (spending upon this no small amount of money), and setting cavalry and infantry to guard

26ΑΥΤΩΝ ΕΝ ΟΛΙΓΩΙ ΧΡΟΝΩΙ ΤΗΝ ΤΕ ΠΟΛΙΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΚΡΑΤΟΣ ΕΙΛΕΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΑΥΤΗΙ ΑΣΕΒΕΙΣ ΠΑΝΤΑΣ ΔΙΕΦΘΕΙΡΕΙ ΚΑΘΑΠΕ[Ρ ΕΡΜ]Σ ΚΑΙ ΩΡΟΣ Ο ΤΗΣ ΙΣΙΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΣΙΡΙΟΣ ΥΙΟΣ ΕΧΕΙΡΩΣΑΝΤΟ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΥΤΟΙΣ

26. Them, in a short time he took the town by storm and destroyed all the impious men in it, even as Hermes and Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris, formerly subdued the rebels in the same

27ΤΟΠΟΙΣ ΑΠΟΣΤΑΝΤΑΣ ΠΡΟΤΕΡΟΝ ΤΟΥΣ ΑΦΗΓΗΣΑΜΕΝΟΥΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΠΟΣΤΑΝΤΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΤΟΥ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΧΩΡΑΝ ΕΝΑ[ΝΤΙΩΣ]ΑΝΤΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΑΔΙΚΗΣΑΝΤΑΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΕΝΟΜΕΝΟΣ ΕΙΣ ΜΕΜΦΙΝ ΕΠΑΜΥΝΩΝ

27. District; and as to those who had led the rebels in the time of his father and who had disturbed the land and done wrong to the temples, he came to Memphis to avenge

28ΤΩΙ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΙ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΑΣ ΕΚΟΛΑΣΕΝ ΚΑΘΗΚΟΝΤΩΣ ΚΑΘ ΟΝ ΚΑΙΡΟΝ ΠΑΡΕΓΕΝΗΘΗ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΕΣΘΗΝΑ[Ι ΚΑΙ Τ]Α ΠΡΟΣΗΚΟΝΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΜΑ ΤΗΙ ΠΑΡΑΛΗΨΕΙ ΤΗΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΑΦΗΚΕΝ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΕΝ

28. His father and his own kingship, and punished them all as they deserved, at the time that he came there to perform the proper ceremonies for the assumption of the crown; and whereas he remitted what

29ΤΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΟΦΕΙΛΟΜΕΝΑ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΕΩΣ ΤΟΥ ΟΓΔΟΟΥ ΕΤΟΥΣ ΟΝΤΑ ΕΙΣ ΣΙΤΟΥ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΟΥ ΠΛΗΘΟΣ ΟΥΚ ΟΛΙΓΟΝ ΩΣΑΥΤ[ΩΣ ΔΕ] ΚΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΤΙΜΑΣ ΤΩΝ ΜΗ ΣΥΝΤΕΤΕΛΕΣΜΕΝΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΒΥΣΣΙΝΩΝ ΣΘ[…]

29. Was due to the crown in the temples up to his eighth year, being no small amount of corn and money; so also the fines for the byssus

30ΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΤΕΤΕΛΕΣΜΕΝΩΝ ΤΑ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΙΣΜΟΝ ΔΙΑΦΟΡΑ ΕΩΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΥΤΩΝ ΧΡΟΝΩΝ ΑΠΕΛΥΣΕΝ ΔΕ ΤΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ Λ[ΟΓΙΖΟ]ΜΕΝΗΣ ΑΡΤΑΒΗΣ ΤΗΙ ΑΡΟΥΡΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΓΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΑΜΠΕΛΙΤΙΔΟΣ ΟΜΟΙ[ΩΣ]

30. Cloth not delivered to the crown, and of those delivered, the several fees for their verification, for the same period; and he also freed the temples of (the tax of) the artabe for every aroura of sacred land and likewise

31ΤΟ ΚΕΡΑΜΙΟΝ ΤΗΙ ΑΡΟΥΡΑΙ ΤΩΙ ΤΕ ΑΠΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΙ ΜΝΕΥΕΙ ΠΟΛΛΑ ΕΔΩΡΗΣΑΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΛΛΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΖΩΙΟΙΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΕΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΠΟΛΥ ΚΡΕΙΣΣΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΩΝ ΦΡΟΝΤΙΖΩΝ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΗΚΟΝ[ΤΩΝ]

31. The jar of wine for each aroura of vine land; and whereas he bestowed many gifts upon Apis and Mnevis and upon the other sacred animals in Egypt, because he was much more considerate than the kings before him of all that belonged to

32ΑΥΤΑ ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΑ Τ ΕΙΣ ΤΑΣ ΤΑΦΑΣ ΑΥΤΩΝ ΚΑΘΗΚΟΝΤΑ ΔΙΔΟΥΣ ΔΑΨΙΛΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΝΔΟΞΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΤΕΛΙΣΚΟΜΕΝΑ ΕΙΣ ΤΑ ΙΔΙΑ ΙΕΡΑ ΜΕΤΑ ΘΥΣΙΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΝΟΜΙ[ΖΟΜΕΝΑ]

32. The gods; and for their burials he gave what was suitable lavishly and splendidly, and what was regularly paid to their special shrines, with sacrifices and festivals and other customary observances;

33ΤΑ ΤΕ ΤΙΜΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΙΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΟΥ ΔΙΑΤΕΤΗΡΗΚΕΝ ΕΠΙ ΧΩΡΑΣ ΑΠΟΚΟΛΟΥΘΟΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΝΟΜΟΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΑΠΙΕΙΟΝ ΕΡΓΟΙΣ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΛΕΣΙΝ ΚΑΤΕΣΚΕΘΑΣΕΝ ΧΟΡΗΓΗΣΑΣ ΕΙΣ ΑΥΤΟ ΧΡΥΣΙΟΥ ΤΕ Κ[ΑΙ ΑΡΓΥΡΙ]

33. And he maintained the honours of the temples and of Egypt according to the laws; and he adorned the temple of Apis with rich work, spending upon it gold and silver

34ΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΛΙΘΩΝ ΠΟΛΥΤΕΛΩΝ ΠΛΗΘΟΣ ΟΥΚ ΟΛΙΓΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΙΕΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΝΑΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΒΩΜΟΥΣ ΙΔΡΥΣΑΤΟ ΤΑ ΤΕ ΠΡΟΣΔΕΟΜΕΝΑ ΕΠΙΣΚΕΥΗΣ ΠΡΟΣΔΙΩΡΘΩΣΑΤΟ ΕΧΩΝ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΙΚΟΥ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΝΗΚΟ[ΥΣΙ ΕΧΩΝ]

34. And precious stones, no small amount; and whereas he has founded temples and shrines and altars, and has repaired those requiring it, having the spirit of a beneficent god in matters pertaining to

35ΘΕΙΟΝ ΔΙΑΝΟΙΑΝ ΠΡΟΣΠΥΝΘΑΝΟΜΕΝΟΥΣ ΤΑ ΤΕ ΤΩΝ ΙΕΡΩΝ ΤΙΜΙΩΤΑΤΑ ΑΝΑΝΕΟΥΤΟ ΕΠΙ ΤΗΣ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΩΣ ΚΑΘΗΚΕΙ ΑΝΘ ΩΝ ΔΕΔΩΚΑΣΙΝ ΑΥΤΩΙ ΟΙ ΘΕΟΙ ΥΓΙΕΙΑΝ ΝΙΚΗΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΑΛΛ ΑΓΑΘ[Α …]

35. Religion; and whereas after enquiry he has been renewing the most honourable of the temples during his reign, as is becoming,; in requital of which things the gods have given him health, victory and power, and all other good things,

36ΤΗΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΔΙΑΜΕΝΟΥΣΗΣ ΑΥΤΩΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ΤΕΚΝΟΙΣ ΕΙΣ ΤΟΝ ΑΠΑΝΤΑ ΧΡΟΝΟΥ ΑΓΑΘΗΙ ΤΥΧΗΙ ΕΔΟΞΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΕΥΣΙ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΧΩΡΑΝ ΙΕΡΩΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΤΑ ΥΠΑΡΧΟΝΤΑ Τ[…]

36. And he and his children shall retain the kingship for all time. WITH PROPITIOUS FORTUNE: It was resolved by the priests of all the temples in the land to increase greatly the existing honours of

37ΤΩΙ ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΩΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΩΙ ΗΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΩΙ ΥΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΦΘΑ ΘΕΩΙ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΙ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩΙ ΟΜΟΙΩΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΓΟΝΕΩΝ ΑΥΤΟΝ ΘΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΓΟΝΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ ΕΥΕΡΓ[ΕΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ]

Here he realize by the timing of the text, something was written inside a circle (it should be important). comparing with the greek text, it was at the same place of the name of King PTOLEMY, probably written in old Egyptian hieroglyphs inside this so called cartouche.

He compared  with the name of Cleopatra that he found in other text, also inside of a cartouche, thus he had the first letters

He carried on...

37. King PTOLEMY, THE EVER-LIVING, THE BELOVED OF PTAH, THE GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS, likewise those of his parents the Gods Philopatores, and of his ancestors, the Gods Euergetai and

38ΤΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ ΣΩΤΗΡΩΝ ΕΠΑΥΞΗΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΩΣ ΣΤΗΣΑΙ ΔΕ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟ[ΛΕ]ΜΑΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΟΝΑ ΕΝ ΕΚΑΣΤΩΙ ΙΕΡΩΙ ΕΝ ΤΩΙ ΕΠΙΦΑ[ΝΕΙΩΙ …]

38. The Gods Adelphoi and the Gods Soteres and to set up in the most prominent place of every temple an image of the EVER-LIVING King PTOLEMY, THE BELOVED OF PTAH, THE GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS,

39Η ΠΡΟΣΟΝΟΜΑΣΘΗΣΕΤΑΙ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΕΠΑΜΥΝΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΗΙ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΗΙ ΠΑΡΕΣΤΗΣΕΤΑΙ Ο ΚΥΡΙΩΤΑΤΟΣ ΘΕΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΙΕΡΟΥ ΔΙΔΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΩΙ ΟΠΛΟΝ ΝΙΚΗΤΙΚΟΝ Α ΕΣΤΑΙ ΚΑΤΕΣΚΕΥΑΣΜΕΝ[ΟΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΟΝ]

39. An image which shall be called that of ‘PTOLEMY, the defender of Egypt’, beside which shall stand the principal god of the temple, handing him the weapon of victory16, all of which shall be manufactured (in the Egyptian)

40ΤΡΟΠΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΙΕΡΕΙΣ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΥΕΙΝ ΤΑΣ ΕΙΚΟΝΑΣ ΤΡΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΗΜΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΡΑΤΙΘΕΝΑΙ ΑΥΤΑΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΝ ΚΟΣΜΟΝ ΚΑΙ Τ ΑΛΛΑ ΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΖΟΜΕΝΑ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΕΙΝ ΚΑΘ Α ΚΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΛΛΟΙΣ ΘΕΟΙΣ ΕΝ [ΤΩΙ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΑΙΣ ΠΑ]

40. fashion; and that the priests shall pay homage to the images three times a day, and put upon them the sacred garments, and perform the other usual honours such as given to the other gods in the Egyptian

41ΝΗΓΥΡΕΣΙΝ ΙΔΡΥΣΑΣΘΑΙ ΔΕ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΩΙ ΘΕΩΙ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΙ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩΙ ΤΩΙ ΕΚ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΑΡΣΙΝΟΗΣ ΘΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΩΝ ΞΟΑΝΟΝ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΝΑΟΝ ΧΡ[ΗΣΘΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ]

41. festivals; and to establish for King PTOLEMY, THE GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS, sprung of King Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoe, the Gods Philopatores, a statue and golden shrine in each of the

42ΙΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΘΙΔΡΥΣΑΙ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΔΥΝΑΤΟΙΣ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΩΝ ΝΑΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΑΙΣ ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΕΣΙΝ ΕΝ ΑΙΣ ΕΞΟΔΕΙΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΝΑΩΝ ΓΙΝΟΝΤΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΝ ΤΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΕΥ[ΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΥ …]

42. Temples, and to set it up in the inner chamber with the other shrines; and in the great festivals in which the shrines are carried in procession the shrine of the GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS shall be carried in procession with them.

here he realized that it was written right to left and there are similarities between demotic and hieroglyphs 


he carried on...


at this point he matched the lines 

As Champollion knew that it was in fact a decree written in basalt stone, fragmented, which had been placed in the main temples of Egypt with 54 remaining lines written in (C) - Greek, 32 in other lines – (B) Demotic (New Egyptian) and 14 others lines in (A)  - The Hieroglyph (old Egyptian), the first step was to decide whether the text should be read from left to right and / or vice versa, perhaps it was only at this point that Champollion made ​​use of the mystical school, believing that living things were looking at the beginning of the sentence.

He also had trouble to find numerals when he compared the dates written in Greek with the repeating pattern of characters written in ancient Egyptian. 



Once deciphered the alphabet and the numbers, Champollion found other groups of bi-and tri-consonantal characters.

We can understand how these groups works adapting them to the English language as follows:

If you want to write Twig (as twig tree) we draw the twig.

If you want to write the name Twiggy (actress, and singer in the early 1960s) exclude the vowels, use the design of the "twig" and add an ideogram of a name (personal).

If you want to write tugboat use the same symbol, but this time we should add a maritime symbol (an oar).



That’s how they use to do it.

Now all that Champlion had to do was find the ancient Egyptian words that had survived unchanged in Coptic language and/or in Hebrew.





Let’s see how He translated line 10:





Translation of the line of section 10 of hieroglyphs

"... Uadj-t her qâh-s ábti uhã-f pu Nekhbet Wadjit shedj taui djerenti un abti shemu ârq hru hru mes neter nefer ankh djet tet-t em heb khá em Her-taui kher hat mátt aru en ãbt akhet sessu met sekhef iri-nef iru nu ua nessu KHã-en seshep-nef nesuit em tef-f is eraf kent em Khe-t neb..."

and for the first time, ancient Egyotian language had a sound, Champollion was astonished!!

It could be translated as "... a basket of papyrus in the left corner of the temple left to the two ladies and Nekhbet Wadjit that illuminate the Two Lands, the upper and lower Egypt. Since the fourth month of the flood Shemu last day of the birth of God's gracious and blessed with eternal life is established the celebration in the land of Horus Her taui the same way it was carried past. In the second month of the 17th Akhet we celebrate the coronation when he took over the reign of his father. Behold now the beginning of the list of offerings..."

The text in old Egyptian coincided with the text in greek, take a look...

43. And in order that it may be easily distinguishable now and for all time, there shall be set upon the shrine the ten gold diadems of the king, to which shall be added a uraeus17 but instead of

43ΧΟΔΕΥΕΙΝ ΟΠΩΣ Δ ΕΥΣΗΜΟΣ ΗΙ ΝΥΝ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΣ ΤΟΝ ΕΠΕΙΤΑ ΧΡΟΝΟΝ ΕΠΙΚΕΙΣΘΑΙ ΤΩΙ ΝΑΩΙ ΤΑΣ ΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΧΡΥΣΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΔΕΚΑ ΑΙΣ ΠΡΟΣΚΕΙΣΕΤΑΙ ΑΣΠΙΣ […]
lit. 43HODEYIN AS D HONORABLE NOW AND IN THE NEXT YEAR HE APPEARS TO THE TEMPLE OF THE KING OF THE GOLDEN KINGDOM TEN IS ATTACHED BY ASP





44. The uraeus-shaped diadems which are upon the other shrines, in the centre of them shall be the crown called Pschent18 which he put on when he went into the temple at Memphis

44ΤΩΝ ΑΣΠΙΔΟΕΙΡΔΩΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΩΝ ΝΑΩΝ ΕΣΤΑΙ Δ ΑΥΤΩΝ ΕΝ ΤΩΙ ΜΕΣΩΙ Η ΚΑΛΟΥΜΕΝΗ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ Ψ ΧΕΝΤ ΗΝ ΠΕΡΙΘΕΜΕΝΟΣ ΕΙΣΗΛΘΕΝ ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΕΝ ΜΕΜΦ[ΕΙ ΙΕΡΟΝ]
lit. 44 OF THE SHIELD KINGS OF THE OTHER TEMPLES ARE THEM IN THESE THROUGH THE CALLED KINGDOM






45. To perform therein the ceremonies for assuming the kingship; and there shall be placed on the square surface round about the diadems, beside the aforementioned crown, golden symbols (eight in number signifying)

45ΤΕΛΕΣΘΗΙ ΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΖΟΜΕΝΑ ΤΗΙ ΠΑΡΑΛΗΨΕΙ ΤΗΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΕΠΙΘΕΙΝΑΙ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΕΠΙ ΤΟΥ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ ΤΕΤΡΑΓΩΝΟΥ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΟ ΠΡΟΕΙΡΗΜΕΝΩΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΟΝ ΦΥΛΑΚΤΗΡΙΑ ΧΡ[…]
lit. 45 THE LEGITIMATE RECEIPT OF THE KINGDOM IS PERFORMED AND THE SQUARE OF THE SQUARE OF THE SQUARE IS ATTACKED AT THE INTRODUCTED KINGDOM





46. That it is (the shrine) of the king who makes manifest the Upper and Lower countries. And since it is the 30th of Mesore on which the birthday of the king is celebrated, and likewise (the 17th of Paophi)

46ΤΙ ΕΣΤΙΝ ΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΙ ΠΕΙΗΣΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΗΝ ΤΕ ΑΝΩ ΧΩΡΑΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΤΡΙΑΚΑΔΑ ΤΟΥΤΟΥ ΜΕΣΟΡΗΙ ΕΝ ΗΙ ΤΑ ΓΕΝΕΘΛΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΕΤΑΙ ΟΜΟΙΩΣ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ []
lit. 46 WHAT HAPPENS TO THE KING, CONVINCING HIS OVER THE COUNTRY AND THREE THIS THREE MEDIUM IN OR THE BIRTHDAY OF THE KING [





47. On which he succeeded his father in the kingship, they have held these days in honour as name-days in the temples, since they are sources of great blessings for all; it was further decreed that a festival shall be kept in the temples throughout Egypt

47ΕΝ ΗΙ ΠΑΡΕΛΑΒΕΝ ΤΗΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΝ ΠΑΡΑ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΕΠΩΜΥΝΟΥΣ ΝΕΝΟΜΙΚΑΣΙΝ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΑΙ ΔΗ ΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΑΓΑΘΩΝ ΑΡΧΗΓΟΙ ΠΑΣΙΝ ΕΙΣΙΝ ΑΓΕΙΝ ΤΑΣ ΗΜΕΡΑΣ ΤΑΥΤΑΣ ΕΟΡΤ[ΗΝ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΑΙ]
lit. 47EN THE RECEIPT OF THE KINGDOM BEFORE THE PATRAS EPOMYNOUS LEGALIZED IN THE HOLY WARS OF MANY GOOD GOVERNMENTS]





48. On these days in every month, on which there shall be sacrifices and libations and all the ceremonies customary at the other festivals (and the offerings shall be given to the priests who)

48ΓΥΠΤΟΝ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΚΑΤΑ ΜΗΝΑ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΕΙΝ ΕΝ ΑΥΤΟΙΣ ΘΥΣΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΠΟΝΔΑΣ ΚΑΙ Τ ΑΛΛΑ ΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΖΟΜΕΝΑ ΚΑΘ Α ΚΑΙ ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΑΛΛΑΙΣ ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΕΣΙΝ ΤΑΣ ΤΕ ΓΙΝΟΜΕΝΑΣ ΠΡΟΘ[ΗΝΑΙ …]
lit. 48GYPTON SACRED BY MONTH AND CONTRIBUTE TO THESE SACRIFICE AND LIFE AND THE OTHER THINGS LEGITIMATICALLY AND IN OTHERWISE CELEBRATED BY THEM BECOME [





49. Serve in the temples. And a festival shall be kept for King PTOLEMY, THE EVER-LIVING, THE BELOVED OF PTAH, THE GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS, yearly in the temples throughout the

49ΡΕΧΟΥΜΕΝΟΙΣ ΕΝ ΤΟΙΣ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΑΓΕΙΝ ΔΕ ΕΟΡΤΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝΗΓΥΡΙΝ ΤΩΙ ΑΙΩΝΟΒΙΩΙ ΚΑΙ ΗΓΑΠΗΜΕΝΩΙ ΥΠΟ ΤΟΥ ΦΘΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΩΙ ΘΕΩΙ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΙ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩΙ ΚΑΤ ΕΝΙ[ΑΥΤΟΝ …]
lit. 49RECHENONIS IN THE HOLY AGEIN DE EORTIN AND FESTIVAL TO THE CENTURIES AND LOVEED BY FTHA VASILEI PTOLEMAIOI THEOI EPHANI EYFAT YOU





50. Land from the 1st of Thoth for five days, in which they shall wear garlands and perform sacrifices and libations and the other usual honors, and the priests (in each temple) shall be called

50ΧΩΡΑΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΣ ΝΟΥΜΗΝΙΑΣ ΤΟΥ ΘΩΥΘ ΕΦ ΗΜΕΡΑΣ ΠΕΝΤΕ ΕΝ ΑΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΕΦΑΝΗΦΟΡΗΣΟΥΣΙΝ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΟΥΝΤΕΣ ΘΥΣΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΠΟΝΔΑΣ ΚΑΙ Τ ΑΛΛΑ ΤΑ ΚΑΘΗΚΟΝΤΑ ΠΡΟΣΑΓΟΡΕ[…]
lit. 50 CELEBRATIONS FROM THE NUMBER OF THOUTH EF DAY FIVE IN AIS AND WREATHED CONTRIBUTORS OF SACRIFICE AND LIFE AND THE OTHER DUTIES APPROACH […]




51. Priests of the GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS in addition to the names of the other gods whom they serve; and his priesthood shall be entered upon all formal documents (and engraved upon the rings which they wear);

51ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΥ ΙΕΡΕΙΣ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΛΛΟΙΣ ΟΝΟΜΑΣΙΝ ΤΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ ΩΝ ΙΕΡΑΤΕΥΟΥΣΙ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΧΩΡΙΣΑΙ ΕΙΣ ΠΑΝΤΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΧΡΗΜΑΤΙΣΜΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΙΣ ΤΟΥ Δ[…]
lit. 51 AND GOD'S VERY PLEASANT PRIESTS TO THE OTHERS NAMES OF THE GODS AS PRIESTHOOD AND REGISTERED IN EVERYTHING THE FINANCE AND DISPUTES]




52. And private individuals shall also be allowed to keep the festival and set up the aforementioned shrine and have it in their homes, performing the aforementioned celebrations

52ΙΕΡΑΤΕΙΑΝ ΑΟΥΤΟΥ ΕΞΕΙΝΑΙ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΛΛΟΙΣ ΙΔΙΩΤΑΙΣ ΑΓΕΙΝ ΤΗΝ ΕΟΡΤΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΝ ΠΡΟΕΙΡΗΜΕΝΟΝ ΝΑΟΝ ΙΔΡΥΕΣΘΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΕΧΕΙΝ ΠΑΡ ΑΥΤΟΙΣ ΣΥΝΤΕΛΟΥ[ΜΕΝΟΙΣ …]
lit. THERE ARE THERE AND THERE ARE THE OTHER PRIVATE PEOPLE GET THE CELEBRATION AND THE WARNING CHURCH ESTABLISHED AND HAVE THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS [SINGLE…]





53. Yearly, in order that it may be known to all that the men of Egypt magnify and honour the GOD EPIPHANES EUCHARISTOS the king, according to the law. This decree shall be inscribed on a stela of

53[…]ΙΣ ΚΑΤ ΕΝΙΑΥΤΟΝ ΟΠΩΣ ΓΝΩΡΙΜΟΝ ΗΙ ΔΙΟΤΙ ΟΙ ΕΝ ΑΙΓΥΠΤΩΙ ΕΥΞΟΥΣΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΜΩΣΙ ΤΟΝ ΘΕΟΝ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΗ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΑ ΚΑΘΑΠΕΡ ΝΟΜΙΜΟΝ ΕΣΤΙΝ […]
lit. [...]N THE SAME THING AS KNOWLEDGE BECAUSE THAT THE EGYPTIANS ARE GREAT AND HONORABLE GOD[...]




54. Hard stone in sacred [that is hieroglyphic] and native [that is demotic] and Greek characters and set up in each of the first, second, and third [rank] temples beside the image of the ever living king.

54[…]ΤΕΡΟΥ ΛΙΘΟΥ ΤΟΙΣ ΤΕ ΙΕΡΟΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΓΧΩΡΙΟΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟΙΣ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΣΙΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΗΣΑΙ ΕΝ ΕΚΑΣΤΩΙ ΤΩΝ ΤΕ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΩ[Ν ΤΑΞΕΩΝ ΙΕΡΩΙ …]
lit. 54 […] TERO STONE THE HOLY AND DOMESTIC AND GREEK LINES AND ESTABLISH IN EACH OF THE FIRST AND SECOND [N CLASSES HOLY…]


Once he had the tex translated from Greek to Old Egyptian, he went for convergences with the Demotic


In this case, the text, as translated by Tome Boshevski, MASA e Aristotel Tentov, FEEIT shows the same context of last 15 lines of Greek text.

".. Order snake of the stone, give sou to animal's greatest snake God, Snake of soldier of Upper Land is he, invite brightest name he is and draw pf great mother (of Egypt, beauty) to be made, of the creator, she is a first and most to water and builder of my pharaoh os the Danai bright. On the shoulders of young ones of the (moon) light to made (a picture) of him, master of (my) father, (inscribed) with script is bright of Egyptians, how he pray the God,  (first) protector ofd his 18 Meie, birthday of the pharaoh. He is a hope of Upper's Egypt's young of (moon) light, a bright hard script to ours, of the father and living masters,  my most respected ones, to pay homage to bright centuries he is a priest of (the) pharaoh, most respected, best family, children of leader of [cejeca]. On a festival of deities of the house (family) in temple of greatest great mother first mistress of the Yokui people, (with) our hand scripts we invite bright of a ceremony, also known as masters of young ones of a (moon) light, the people of Lower Egypt. 







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