Saturday, November 7, 2009

Evolutionary Economics

Biomimicry should be applied to Economics

Every fisherman in Tsukiji fish market (築地市場 Tsukiji shijō) in Tokyo knows that the fight to the top, in a non productive way, is the worst thing one should do in order not to be eaten.

Leia este artigo em Português

Portunus Trituberculatus, the GAZAMI crab is a Japanese blue crab that is also the most widely consumed species of crab in the world, with over 300,000 tonnes being caught annually the GAZAMI is the best example of nature’s contraproducent behavior. The lack of success of this crab is due to an apparent inherited selfish attitude.Gazami demonstrate some intelligence and are even capable of communicate by drumming or waving their pincers. They are aware about themselves and others.  It is well known that if you put a bunch of GAZAMI crabs in a barrel they would never be able to leave. When one nears the top of the barrel, approaching his escape, one of the other crabs reaches the mate and pulls the crab back down. Another one goes up, and he or she is also pulled up to fall.  This process continues and the only way for them to escape from the barrel is to be sold to someone with lunch or dinner intentions.
Markets are the perfect non-biased teachers of self-reflection and discipline as well as evolution. Studying attitudes of animals like that we could understand our own nature and also learn how to keep up with our social lives. Termites in other hand are proliferating worldwide, and differently from GAZAMI crabs, they are capable of helping each other, looks like they live by the motto “Create more prosperity in the life of others and you shall experience more prosperity in your own life”.
David M. Raup, a biologist at the University of Chicago, identifies in his book "Bad Genes or Bad Look?" that everything about extinction that we thought was true is wrong. The author’s main thesis is that extinction is a mostly random event; due to catastrophes and bad luck, and not related to the process of evolution itself.
There is an interesting but naive chapter in the book on the relation of extinction to industries. Raup argues that most of the companies around today were not in existence 50 years ago, and the cause of their disappearance, merger or bankruptcy corresponds to the causes of species disappearance or phyletic transformation. The author draws parallels between such things as that the total number of companies names was lower 50 years ago, just as biodiversity was less, and that certain industries wax and wane just as species do.
Comparing the extinction of ancient species and old companies brings few points into consideration:1 - Species are temporary but the energy manifested in individuals and markets carries on beyond the gradual understanding of science and reason. (Corporate) death is nothing but an opportunity. Time is nothing but a hubristic attempt to contemplate the unknown;2 - Individual entities, while susceptible to a variety of ills, are more inclined to survive attacks based on the presumption that assumes a large group is present and available to be taken out with the first strike. Less mass = Less possible chance of extinction;3 - Diversification in multiple markets should prove a trusted strategy?4 - Extinction would have taken its toll on multiple organisms, yet somehow these organisms were allowed endure.
Evolutionary economics is a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology. Much like mainstream economics, it stresses complex interdependencies, competition, growth, structural change, and resource constraints. Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was one of the predecessor of evolutionary economics, economist and political scientist born in Moravia, then Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic. Schumpeter wrote “Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung” translated as The Theory of Economic Development (Entwicklung also means Evolution).In Schumpeter's book he proposed an idea radical for its time: The evolutionary perspective. He based his theory on the assumption of usual macroeconomic equilibrium, which is something like "the normal mode of economic affairs". Both economics and evolution employ the notion of optimization, whether optimization of the profit, of a business, or optimization of species for its environmental niche.Howard Aldrich, Geoffrey Hodgson, David Hull, Thorbjoern Knudsen, Joel Mokyr, Viktor Vanberg and others have argued that the general Darwinian principles of variation, inheritance and selection should be applied to social as well as biological entities, despite important detailed differences in the mechanisms and processes involved.Maybe in the future Artificial Intelligence and paleontology would work together in a model that simulates fluctuation of the markets comparing companies to extinct and living animals.

Perhaps Google could base its strategy on algorithms using as a base the events that lead Dimetrodon to evolve into mammals (the large sail at the back of the Dimetrodon which gave rise to the homoeothermics creatures can be compared with the mechanisms of Google search, and its magnificent effect in the global economy). And so Google can plot its next move to an even greater leadership strategy in the future.

Larry Page, Sergey Brin and the Dimetrodon - both have a breathtaking new tool 

Edward O Wilson wrote in 1978 “Human Nature” – Economics can be improved by Darwinian theory. Wilson supports that All Social sciences rely upon implicit models of genetic. (It won a Pulitzer Prize) Even though it was written in 1978, it continues to provide a good overview of much that is still held to be true about human biology and sociology.
He asserted that many human behaviors had genetic basis, like the behavior of termites inside a mound, an idea then disputed by many social scientists and by Marxists intent on remaking humanity.
Today, termites are one of the world's most pervasive and successful insect groups, with about 2,300 known species, mostly in tropical settings, busily at work chewing wood or other plant fiber that protozoa help to digest. They have important ecological roles, helping to create habitat, build soil fertility, recycle nutrients and serve as food for many predators.
On march 2009 Dr. George Poinar discovered the earliest known form of mutualism between an insect and a microorganism ("mutualism," type of symbiotic relationship in which two species help each other) a termite and a protozoa entombed in amber for 100 million years. This particular termite was probably flying around while mating in a wet, humid tropical forest in what is now Myanmar during the Early Cretaceous period.We should take social life in a termite colony as model for today’s economic life, it is flawless. The termites act together simultaneously as one body and cooperate in performing all functions of the community. And, if we consider that some termites live together with at least one million others, we can easily understand the importance of a system of communication that allows termites to provide a working area, come together and join forces against intruders and manage all the other needs of the colony in perfect harmony. This communication system is based on the exchange of chemical signals such as smell or taste.
Perhaps it is in our DNA the origin of our social life, but, once it would not be appropriate for a person to be conditioned like termites, we should not be surprised if in a non-distant future colonies of termite-minded robots would be working in the surface of Moon or Mars.

I’m sure that more and more we will live under the motto “Create more prosperity in the life of others and you shall experience more prosperity in your own life”. In fact I do believe that this attitude is more like a genetic instruction than a religious commandment.

Monday, September 28, 2009

The Mayan message of doomsday is not in the calendar

After a long time it was great sitting in the movie theater once again, watching movie trailers when I saw the teaser of an upcoming disaster film directed by Roland Emmerich, 2012.

The teaser showed a tsunami surging over the Himalayas together with a message suggesting the doomsday in 2012, and ended with a message to viewers to "find out the truth" by searching "2012" on search engines.

As a dilettante archaeologist and ancient art enthusiast I did it and discovered some revealing truth.

The calendar itself predict nothing but a cycle change, the end of cycle 12, and the beginning of cycle 13 (nothing spectacular will occur besides that), but the real message is in the question “why did the Mayan civilization collapse?”

First step – understanding Maya calendar

According to the outstanding translation work of Sylvanus G. Morley the Maya calendar is a system of calendars and almanacs used by ancient Maya civilization called Tonalamatl dating back to at least the 6th century BC.

The Tonalamatl is divided in three parts; the first with a period of 260 days called Tzolk’in combining the name of 20 days with smaller cycles of other 13 days. Tzolk'in is integrated with a second calendar called Haab’ with 365 days distributed in 18 months of 20 days plus a small month of 5 days. Both calendar together perform a cycle of 52 years.

A different form of calendar was used to track longer periods of time, the third part is called “long count calendar” used to track longer periods of time is based upon the number of elapsed days since a mythological starting-point.

The long count calendar is a combination of 5 cycles:

First – the day cycles called Kin that starts on day 0 and goes to day 19. When Kin period reaches the day 0 again it moves one grade of the Unial cycle.

Second – Unial cycle has 17 grades, and when Unial reaches the grade 0 again it moves one grade of Tun cycle.

Third – Tun cycle has 19 grades, and when Tun reaches the grade 0 again it moves one grade of the Katun cycle.

Fourth – Katun cycle also has 19 grades, and when Katun reaches grade 0 again it moves on grade of the great cycle (here called simple “cycle”).

It may be confusing, but let’s try to understand it in a practical way.

The stelae A is perhaps the most beautiful of all the Stelae located in Copán, It portrays the 13th ruler of Copán Waxaklajun Ub'aah K'awiil (18 Rabbit, see Maya ruler genealogy) carrying a two-headed centipede bar that is symbolically giving birth to sun deities.

The inscription on west side of Stela A outlines the erection of the monument on the date of 12 Ahaw 18 Cumku, and there is also a long count date, which makes clear the date of January 28th, 731 AD. Let’s translate it.

Now, let’s organize it in a Tonalamatl table, we obseve that it is an initial day of a new Unial (period of 19 Kins).

If we compare with the date that I am supposed to publish this article, September 30th, 2009 we can understand how a date in Mayan calendar goes forward.

We are now three Cylces ahead from the date of stelae A of Cópan (from 9 to 12), representing the difference of 1.935.905 days from that date to today.

Now, let’s see the table for December 21st, 2012, the so called Dooms date.

It represents the exact change of Cycle 12 to Cycle 13, you may noticed that it is also the beginning of a new Kin, Unial, Tun and Katun. But, how about Tzolk’in and Haab?

As we can see, Kankin third is not the last day of Haab’ cycle, as well as Ahau fourth is not the last day also.]

Ok, it is not the end for now but, what would happen when we reach the last grade of all cycles? I have the answer – it will be the beginning of a new cycle – just that.

As Stevie Wonder would say “When you believe in things that you don't understand. Then you suffer....superstition ain't the way”.

In other hand, the research about this Maya doomsday brought something appalling and terrible; we are repeating the same mistakes that lead Mayan culture to a total collapse. Will we face the same fate?

Maya civilization warning about the end of the world

We should not be afraid about of the end of Maya twelfth cycle period, but we should pay attention to the message that they really left to mankind.

According to NASA archaeologist Tom Sever, the Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica was one of the densest populations in human history; Mayan population reached an all-time high. Population density ranged from 500 to 700 people per square mile in the rural areas, and from 1,800 to 2,600 people per square mile near the center of the Mayan Empire (in what is now northern Guatemala and Yucatan peninsula in Mexico).

As we, Mayans was not worried about environmental impact of their accomplishments, but differently from us today, they did not know what they were doing.

They make use of intensive agricultural methods included canals, terracing, raised fields, ridged fields, chinampas, the use of human faeces as fertilizer, etc.

The agricultural techniques utilized by the Maya were entirely dependent upon ample supplies of water.

They also clear the rainforest to create space for new cities and they need firewood to burn a high quality plaster floor that they used to put together the stones of temples.

Pollen samples collected from columns of soil that archeologists have excavated across the region provide evidence of widespread deforestation approximately 1,200 years ago they would have needed about 20 trees to build a fire large and hot enough to make a plaster floor stone that is about one square meter. In the earliest ruins, these stones were a foot or more thick, but they progressively got thinner.

The most recently built ones were only a few inches thick.” Sever’s colleague, atmospheric scientist Bob Oglesby of Marshall Space Flight Center, calls the Mayan deforestation episode “the granddaddy of all deforestation events.” Studies of settlement remains show that this deforestation coincided with a dramatic drop in the Mayan population.

The Maya civilization perished because of intense deforestation and the consequent environmental damage.

After the Mayan collapse, this area was abandoned and the forest recovered. But as people have returned over the last three decades, the deforestation has returned.

The good point of that panorama is that we still have the power to avoid doomsday to occur, we know exactly what we have to do.

Sunday, June 14, 2009

History of Brands

Brands were first used in ancient Egypt to identify ownership and pride of their livestock such as cattle, people of that time would know that Great mr TI would have the best cattle due to an outstanding alimentation and care with their livestock. Of course, in the open range, cattle could become mixed with those of another owner, and therefore it became necessary to establish some form of identification. From the excavation of a 26th Dynasty animal cemetery, we believe that one means of identifying ownership was to etch or mark the horns of cattle. However, branding scenes are known from several Theban tombs (Nebamun and Neferhotep), as well as from the Varzy Papyrus, and branding was probably a more effective means of identification practiced by large estates and temples.

Cattle were branded long before this; the term "maverick", originally meaning an unbranded calf, comes from Texas rancher Samuel Augustus Maverick who, following the American Civil War, decided that since all other cattle were branded, his would be identified by having no markings at all.

Brands were used also to identify prisoners with symbols of dishonor or to mark a slave. Every numeral and letter of the alphabet can be made with a hot iron shaped in a “J”configuration.

Flags was also a form of branding, the usage of flags spread from India and China, where they were almost certainly invented, to neighboring Burma, Siam, and southeastern Asia.

The Persians used Drafsch e Kavian as the flag, at the time of Achaemenian dynasty at 550–330 B.C. Afterwards it was used in different look by the late Sassanid era (224-651). It was also representative of the Sassanid state - Ērānshāhr, the "Kingdom of Iran" - and may so be considered to have been the first "national flag" of Iran.

But the first time a brand was used to identify a manufactured product was in Rome.

Some time ago was found in ancient Roman dumping in Modena vases, bottles and bricks, and oil lamps, each bearing their maker’s name.

Firmalampen, or “factory lamps,” were one of the first mass-produced goods in Roman times (circa 150 A.D.). They carried brand names clearly stamped on their clay bottoms.

It was founded also vast quantities of different qualities of Garum, likewise called liquamen, is a type of fish sauce condiment that was popular in Ancient Roman society. (such as the marketing puns of the "Vesuvinum" wine jars found at Pompeii).There were also the scandinavian sword (XI c.) with the handle made in bronze commonly ornamented by imaging of monster (like on Runes Rock). with a brand (trade mark) on the blade: “Kоваль Людота (Людоша )” (“Koval Ludota (Ludosha)”), translated like “Blacksmith Ludota (Ludosha)”.This is the most ancient weapon with cyrillic brand. The brand of the first ukrainian swordmaking blacksmith.

The usage of Family Blazons in medieval times to distinct a family from the others highlighting its main characteristics is used till today as a form to differentiate products (families) happened at same time in Japan with the Tsubas.

The Tsuba - (鍔) were usually a round or occasionally squarish guard at the end of the grip of bladed Japanese weapons, like the katana and its various declinations (tachi, wakizashi etc.), tanto, or naginata. They contribute to the control of the arm (the right index of the fighter typically touches the tsuba), and to the protection of the hand. The tsuba was mostly meant to be used to prevent the hand from sliding onto the blade during thrusts as opposed to protecting from an opponent's blade

Nicolas Appert (November 17, 1749 - June 3, 1841), born in Châlons en Champagne was the French inventor of airtight food preservation. Appert, known as the "father of canning," was a confectioner.

Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red triangle brand was the world's first trademark. Lyle’s Golden Syrup makes a similar claim, having been named as Britain’s oldest brand, with its green and gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since 1885

Those are earlier examples which could be deemed "protobrands" or brands tha came before industrial revolution and mass-production and subsequently mass-marketing.

Brands in the field of mass-marketing originated in the 19th century with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, extending the meaning of "brand" to that of trademark.

Around 1900, James Walter Thompson published a house ad explaining trademark advertising. This was an early commercial explanation of what we now know as branding. Companies such as Coca cola, IBM, Fiat soon adopted slogans, mascots, and jingles which began to appear on radio and early television.

Well, speaking of the Coca-cola … marketers use to say that the world has changed since the very first Coca cola bottle was sold in Jacobs’ Pharmacy Atlanta, Georgia on may 8th 1866. The name and the product itself have lots of different meanings to hundreds of millions of consumers around the globe. Coca-Cola products are served more than 705 million times every day, quenching the thirsts of consumers in more than 200 countries and territories around the world.

Lets see how Coca-cola brand a product evolved since that day:

1886 - Sales of Coca-Cola averaged nine drinks per day. That first year, Dr. Pemberton sold 25 gallons of syrup, shipped in bright red wooden kegs. Red has been a distinctive color associated with the No. 1 soft drink brand ever since.
1891 - Atlanta entrepreneur Asa G. Candler had acquired complete ownership of the Coca-Cola business. Pemberton was forced to sell because he was in a state of poor health and was in debt. He had paid $76.96 for advertising, but he only made $50.00 in profits. Candler acquired the whole company for $2,300. Within four years, Candler's merchandising flair helped expand consumption of Coca-Cola to every state and territory.
1893 - In January "Coca-Cola" was registered in the U.S. Patent office..
1917 - 3 Million Coke's sold per day. "" is the worlds most recognized trademark.
1925 - 6 Million Coke's sold per day.
1927 - The first Coca-Cola radio advertisement.
1929 - Coca-Cola was made available through vending machine
1931 - The Coke Santa was introduced as a Christmas promotion
1934 - Johnny Weissmuller, and Olympic champion swimmer, and Maureen O'Sullivan, a motion-picture star, appeared on a metal serving tray for Coca-Cola.
1940 - Coke is bottled in over 40 countries.
1950 - Advertising on on the television began. Currently Coca-Cola is advertised on over five hundred TV channels around the world.
1971 - The song "I'd like to Buy the World a Coke" was released.
1977 - The Coca-Cola contour bottle was patented
1982 - Diet Coke was introduced in July.
1988 - Coca-Cola was the first independent operator in the Soviet Union.
1993 - Coca-Cola exceeds 10 Billion cases sold worldwide.
1993 - Advertising slogan -"Always Coca-Cola".
1995 - Coke was consumed aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery -- marking the third trip into space for Coca-Cola and the first for Diet Coke.
1996 - The Summer Olympics will be held in Atlanta, Georgia, the home of Coca-Cola.
For more than 65 years, Coca-Cola has been a sponsor of the Olympics.
2002 – Marketing platform Welcome to the coke side of life make its debut
2005 – Coca cola creates its Aluminum contour bottle
2008 – coca cola celebrates its 80th years of continuous involvement with the Olympics games a partnership unmatched by any other corporate supporter
Read this article in portuguese

Monday, June 1, 2009

Bio-engineered House (BEH)

With the advent of BEHs (Bio Engineered Houses) we would have abundance of construction materials and resources 
Biomimicry (from bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate) is an ancient concept recently returning to scientific thought that examines nature, its models, systems, processes, and elements— and emulates or takes inspiration from them to solve human problems sustainability. Scientific and engineering literature often uses the term Biomimetics for the process of understanding and applying biological principles to human designs.

Giant Mollusca will provide the “CACO3 coiled shells” prefab modular homes
The Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe, typifies the best of green architecture and ecologically sensitive adaptation. The country’s largest office and shopping complex is an architectural marvel in its use of biomimicry principles. The mid-rise building, designed by architect Mick Pearce in conjunction with engineers at Arup Associates, has no conventional air-conditioning or heating, yet stays regulated year round with dramatically less energy consumption using design methods inspired by indigenous Zimbabwean masonry and the self-cooling mounds of African termites!

Giant Mollusca with its DNA specially altered to provide the “CACO3 coiled shells” prefab modular homes. The organic part of the animal is regarded as a delicacy, appreciated ind several high end restaurants
Outside air that is drawn in is either warmed or cooled by the building mass depending on which is hotter, the building concrete or the air. It is then vented into the building’s floors and offices before exiting via chimneys at the top. The complex also consists of two buildings side by side that are separated by an open space that is covered by glass and open to the local breezes.

The Eastgate Centre uses less than 10% of the energy of a conventional building its size. These efficiencies translate directly to the bottom line: Eastgate’s owners have saved $3.5 million alone because of an air-conditioning system that did not have to be implemented.

But what if we can develop a genetic engineered life form in order to build spaces to live, hoses completely adapted to the environment.
The Windows of "Blemya DRAGONFLY MOUND” will be made using DNA codes of termites wings,  resulting in a state-of-the-art stained Glass
Mitchell Joachim of MITs Media lab leads a team that is designing a tree house. Not a house that will be put in a tree, but rather a living tree that will be sculpted into a house. Obviously a house that is also a tree will have radically innovative systems for all aspects of living. Water would be gathered in a roof-top trough and circulate by gravity through the house, where it would be used by the inhabitants, filtered through a garden, and purified in a pond containing bacteria, fish, and plants that consume organic waste.

The Windows of "Blemya DRAGONFLY MOUND” will be made using DNA codes of termites wings,  resulting in a state-of-the-art stained Glass
This house would be completely self sufficient a so called Technogaia House (Technogaianism - a portmanteau word combining "techno" for technology and "gaian" for Gaia philosophy is a bright green environmentalist stance of active support for the research, development and use of emerging and future technologies to help restore Earth's environment. Technogaians argue that developing safe, clean, alternative technology should be an important goal of environmentalists).

With the advent of BEHs we would never be concerned about Construction & amp; Building Materials prices; all we have to do is to buy a BEH seed and let it grow. Obviously at some point of its growing genetic instructions will be given in order to stop it, unless you want a mansion.

"Blemya DRAGONFLY MOUND” - a giant mound constructed by genetic engineered termites could be used as a house
I am sure that we will see in the near-future projects like the “DRAGONFLY MOUND”, a giant house constructed by genetic engineered termites measuring around 2 centimeters called Megatermites. Houses with a highly effective oxygenation and natural air conditioning system. The windows will be made out of their altered DNA wings resulting in a state-of-the-art stained Glass.

"Blemya CACO3 coiled shells” -  The natural vascular system of the modified mollusk serve as electric conduits and water pipes
Giant Mollusca will provide the “CACO3 coiled shells” prefab modular homes that will take advantage of its natural vascular system as electric conduits and water pipes. And the semi-transparent nacre structure will give an extraordinary effect of lightening during the day and natural luminescence will give a natural and calm illumination during the night.

Saturday, April 4, 2009

Power plugs and sockets of the world

Brazil is the only country in the world that has plans to introduce the IEC 60906-1, the international standard 230 V household plug system. It was intended to become the common mains plug and socket standard, to be used one day everywhere in Europe and other regions with 230 V mains. The standard was published by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1986.

leia este artigo em português

When electricity was first introduced into the household, it was primarily used for lighting. At that time, many electricity companies operated a split-tariff system where the cost of electricity for lighting was lower than that for other purposes. This led to portable appliances (such as vacuum cleaners, electric fans, and hair driers) being connected to the light fitting.

U.S. Patent 774,250 . The first electric power plug and receptacle. However, as electricity became a common method of lighting houses and operating labor-saving appliances, a means of connection to the electric system other than using a light socket was needed. The original two blade electrical plug and socket were invented by Harvey Hubbell and patented in 1904.

A (NEMA 1-15 USA 2 pin)

B (NEMA 5-15 USA 3 pin)

C (CEE 7/16)

D (BS546 5 A

E (French)

F (CEE 7/4 "Schukostecker" or "Side Earth")

G (BS1363 Fused 13 A)

H (SI 32 Israel)

I (AS-3112 Argentina / Australia / New Zealand)

I, plus sockets for A, C and I (China)

J (SEV-1011 Switzerland)

K (SRAF 1962/DB Denmark)

L (CEI 23-16 Italy)

Region | Type(s) of plug / socket | Voltage | Frequency | Comments

Afghanistan C, D, F 240 V 50 Hz Voltage may vary from 160 to 280.
Albania C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Algeria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
American Samoa A, B, F, I 120 V 60 Hz
Andorra C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Angola C 220 V 50 Hz
Anguilla A (maybe B) 110 V 60 Hz
Antigua A, B 230 V 60 Hz Airport power is reportedly 110 V.
Argentina C, I 220 V 50 Hz Live and neutral are reversed for socket outlet type I in comparison to most other countries.
Armenia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Aruba A, B, F 127 V 60 Hz Lago Colony 115 V.
Australia I 230 V 50 Hz As of 2000, the mains supply voltage specified in AS 60038 is 230 V with a tolerance of +10% -6%[3]. This was done for voltage harmonisation - however 240 V is within tolerance and is commonly found. Mains voltage is still popularly referred to as being "two-forty volts".
Austria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Azerbaijan C 220 V 50 Hz
Azores C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Bahamas A, B 120 V 60 Hz along with 50 Hz in some outlying areas
Bahrain G 230 V 50 Hz Awali 110 V, 60 Hz.
Balearic Islands C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Bangladesh A, C, D, G, K 220 V 50 Hz
Barbados A, B 115 V 50 Hz
Belarus C 220 V 50 Hz
Belgium C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Belize A, B, G 110 V
220 V 60 Hz
Benin C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Bermuda A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bhutan D, F, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Bolivia A, C 220 V 50 Hz La Paz & Viacha 115 V.
Bonaire 127 V 50 Hz Receptacle is combination of B&C without ground connector.
Bosnia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Botswana D, G, M 231 V 50 Hz
Brazil A, B, C, I 127 V and 220 V 60 Hz Type I is becoming common for 220 V outlets and appliances in 127 V areas. Dual-voltage wiring is rather common for high-powered appliances, such as clothes dryers and electric showers which tend to be 220 V even in 127 V areas. Depending on the area, the exact voltage might be 115 V, 127 V, or 220 V. The A, B and C types are sometimes together (flat with rounder ends and ground pin) so that an A, B or C types can be used. Also note that by 2009, Brazil will be converting to the IEC 60906-1 international plug which looks similar to type J but is not compatible.
Brunei G 240 V 50 Hz
Bulgaria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Burkina Faso C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Burundi C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Cambodia A, C, G 230 V 50 Hz
Cameroon C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Canada A, B 120 V 60 Hz Standardized at 120 V. 240 V used for applications such as clothes driers, air conditioning, electric cook-stoves and machinery. Buildings with more than one branch circuit must have both voltages. Type A outlets are for repairs only, type B now required for new construction and renovation. A 20-Amp type B but with a T-slot is used in kitchens in new construction.
Canary Islands C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Cape Verde C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Cayman Islands A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Central African Republic C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Chad D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Channel Islands C, G 230 V 50 Hz
Chile C, L 220 V 50 Hz
China (mainland only) A, C, I 220 V 50 Hz Most wall outlets simultaneously support Types A and I. Some outlets support both Type A and Type C (the holes in the outlets are flat in the middle and round on the sides) so that either a Type A or a Type C plug can be used. The Type I outlet is next to the Type A & C outlet. Type A outlets only fit plugs with pins of the same width -- a polarized Type A plug requires an adapter. NOTE: no matter the type of plug the socket will accept, voltage in china is always 220 volts. See photo at right.
Colombia A, B 120 V 60 Hz High-power air conditioners, restaurant equipment, cookstoves and ovens use 240 volt supplies. Wiring conventions, practices and standards follow the Colombian Electrical Code (Codigo Electrico Colombiano) which is essentially a translation of the USA National Electric Code.
Comoros C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Congo-Brazzaville C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Congo-Kinshasa C, D 220 V 50 Hz
Cook Islands I 240 V 50 Hz
Costa Rica A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Côte d'Ivoire C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Croatia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Cuba A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Cyprus G 240 V 50 Hz
Czech Republic C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Denmark C, K 230 V 50 Hz Type E is added from July 2008.[5]
Djibouti C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Dominica D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Dominican Republic A, B 110 V 60 Hz
East Timor C, E, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Ecuador A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Egypt C 220 V 50 Hz
El Salvador A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Equatorial Guinea C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Eritrea C 230 V 50 Hz
Estonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Ethiopia C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Faroe Islands C, K 220 V 50 Hz
Falkland Islands G 240 V 50 Hz
Fiji I 240 V 50 Hz
Finland C, F 230 V 50 Hz
France C, E 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type C wall sockets are prohibited in new installations since > 10 years.
French Guiana C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Gaza Strip C, H 230 V 50 Hz (see Israel in this list)
Gabon C 220 V 50 Hz
Gambia G 230 V 50 Hz
Germany C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type F ("Schuko", short for "Schutzkontakt") is standard. Type C Plugs ("Euro-Stecker") are common, especially for low-power devices. Type C wall sockets are very uncommon, and exist only in very old installations.
Ghana D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Gibraltar G, K 240 V 50 Hz Type K was used in the Europort development by the Danish builders. Otherwise the United Kingdom fittings are used.
Greece C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type F is the de-facto standard for new installations' sockets. Type C sockets exist only in old installations. Light appliances use type C plug while more electricity-consuming ones use type E&F or F plugs.
Greenland C, K 220 V 50 Hz
Grenada G 230 V 50 Hz
Guadeloupe C, D, E 230 V 50 Hz
Guam A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Guatemala A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Guinea C, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Guinea-Bissau C 220 V 50 Hz
Guyana A, B, D, G 240 V 60 Hz
Haiti A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Honduras A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Hong Kong G is used in almost all products, while M is (rarely) used when required current rating is between 13~15A. D is now obsolete in Hong Kong. 220 V 50 Hz Largely based on UK system. Occasionally, a 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is found in some bathrooms that provides low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 220 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 110 V and 220 V. This duo installation is not as common in HK as in the UK. There was a smaller 2A version of type D, now obsolete.
Hungary C, F 230 V (formerly 220V) 50 Hz
Iceland C, F 230 V 50 Hz
India C, D, M 230 V 50 Hz The standardardised voltage used in India is 230V/50 Hz with a tolerance varying from 216V to 253V. Some hotels provide dual receptacles for foreign appliances giving both 120V and 230V.
Indonesia C, F, G 127 V
230 V 50 Hz Type G socket/plug is less common.
Iran C, F 220 V 50 Hz Type C wall sockets are less common, and exist only in older installations. Type F is used for new installations. Type C Plugs are common for low-power devices.
Iraq C, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Ireland G found in all normal installations - Legacy systems (rare/extinct): (D and M (as in the UK); and type F (Schuko) ) 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz G Sockets and plugs standard as defined by NSAI I.S. 401 (Plug) I.S. 411 (Socket outlet). Type F ("Side Earth") plugs occasionally seen in old installations probably because much of the early Irish electrical network was heavily influenced by Siemens. ' A 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is sometimes found in bathrooms that will provide low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 230 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 115 V and 230 V. The G type socket often has a on-off switch on the socket. 110 V centre point earthed transformers are often used for industrial portable tools.
Isle of Man C, G 240 V 50 Hz
Israel C, H 230 V 50 Hz The standard for H plugs and sockets was recently modified to use round pins, so most modern sockets accept both type C and type H plugs. Type M sockets are used for air conditioners. Identical plugs and sockets also used in the Palestinian National Authority areas.
Italy C, F, L 230 V (formerly 220v)[6] 50 Hz
Jamaica A, B 110 V 50 Hz
Japan A, B 100 V 50 Hz
60 Hz Eastern Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); Western Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima). Older buildings have nonpolarized sockets, in which case American polarized plugs (one prong wider than the other) would not fit. Many buildings do not have the ground pin. Sockets and switches fit in American-sized standard boxes.
Jordan B, C, D, F, G, J 230 V 50 Hz
Kazakhstan C, E, F 220 V 50 Hz No official standard. Voltage tolerance is 220 V ±10%. Actual voltage may vary (usually 150-200 V) because of unstable electrical system.
Kenya G 240 V 50 Hz
Kiribati I 240 V 50 Hz
Korea, North C 220 V 50 Hz
Korea, South A, B, C, F (Types A & B are used for 110-volt installations and/or found in very old buildings. Types C & F are used for 220 Volts.) 220 V 60 Hz Type F is normally found in offices, airports, hotels and some upscale homes; while Type C (type CEE 7/17) is the norm in most households. 220 volt power is distributed by using both "live" poles of a 110 volt system (neutral is not used). 110 V/60 Hz power with plugs A & B (under Japanese colonial influence) was previously used but has already been phased out. Some residents install their own step-down transformers and dedicated circuits, so that they can use 110 V appliances imported from Japan or North America. Most hotels only have 220 V outlets, but some hotels offer both 110 V (Type A or B) and 220 V (Type C or F) outlets. Switches and outlets fit American-sized boxes.
Kuwait C, G 240 V 50 Hz
Kyrgyzstan C 220 V 50 Hz
Laos A, B, C, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Latvia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Lebanon A, B, C, D, G 110 V
200 V 50 Hz
Lesotho M 220 V 50 Hz
Liberia A, B, C, E, F 120 V
240 V 50 Hz Previously 60 Hz, now officially 50 Hz. Many private power plants are still 60 Hz. A & B are used for 110v; C & F are used for 230/240v. Much of the centralized power system was destroyed during the civil wars starting in 1990, and public power supplies are still limited. Local supplies may vary and may not match the usual voltage for a particular wall socket. [7]
Libya D, L 127 V 50 Hz Barce, Benghazi, Derna, Sebha & Tobruk 230 V.
Lithuania C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Liechtenstein C, J 230 V 50 Hz Swiss Norm, C only in the form CEE 7/16.
Luxembourg C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Macau S.A.R. of China D, M, G, a small number of F 220 V 50 Hz No official standards there. However, in the Macao-HK Ferry Pier built by Portuguese Government before handover the standard was E & F. After handover, Macau adopted G in both government and private buildings.
Macedonia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Madagascar C, D, E, J, K 127 V
220 V 50 Hz
Madeira C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Malawi G 230 V 50 Hz
Malaysia G (but M for air conditioners and clothes dryers) 240 V 50 Hz The official mains power voltage is AC 230 V with the tolerance of +10%,-6%.[8] However, the supplied voltage remains at 240 V (except Penang at 230 V), as the supplied voltage is within the allowed tolerance. Type C plugs are very common with audio/video equipment. Plugged into Type G outlets using widely-available adapters or forced in by pushing down the shutter. The latter is widely practised, although hazardous.
Maldives A, D, G, J, K, L 230 V 50 Hz
Mali C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Malta G 230 V 50 Hz
Martinique C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritania C 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritius C, G 230 V 50 Hz
Mexico A, B 127 V 60 Hz Type B is becoming more common. Voltage can legally vary by +/- 10% (giving a range of 114 to 140 volts). Split phase is commonly available and local electricians are apt to wire both to a type A/B socket to give 240 V for air conditioning or washing machine/dryers.
Micronesia A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Moldova C, F 220-230 V 50 Hz Compatible with European and former Soviet Union (GOST) standards.
Monaco C, D, E, F 127 V
220 V 50 Hz
Mongolia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Montenegro C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Montserrat (Leeward Is.) A, B 230 V 60 Hz
Morocco C, E 127 V
220 V 50 Hz Conversion to 220 V only underway.
Mozambique C, F, M 220 V 50 Hz Type M found especially near the border with South Africa, including in the capital, Maputo.
Myanmar/Burma C, D, F, G 230 V 50 Hz Type G found primarily in better hotels. Also, many major hotels chains are said to have outlets that will take Type I plugs and perhaps other types.
Namibia D, M 220 V 50 Hz
Nauru I 240 V 50 Hz
Nepal C, D, M 230 V 50 Hz
Netherlands C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Netherlands Antilles A, B, F 127 V
220 V 50 Hz St. Martin 120 V, 60 Hz; Saba & St. Eustatius 110 V, 60 Hz, A, maybe B
New Caledonia E 220 V 50 Hz
New Zealand I 230 V 50 Hz Electricity Regulations 1997 states supply voltage is 230 V ±6%
Nicaragua A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Niger A, B, C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Nigeria D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Norway C, F 230 V 50 Hz IT earthing system

Okinawa A, B 100 V 60 Hz Military facilities 120 V.
Oman C, G 240 V 50 Hz Voltage variations common.
Pakistan C, D, M, G 230 V 50 Hz Official standard is 230 V / 50 Hz. Voltage tolerance is 230 V ±5% (218 V to 242 V). Frequency tolerance 50 Hz ±2% (49 Hz to 51 Hz) But Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) is 240 V / 50 Hz.
Type C and D Plug / Socket are common for low-power devices. Type M Plug / Socket is common for air conditioners and high-power devices. Type G Plug / Socket is less common.
Panama A, B 110 V 60 Hz Panama City 120 V.
Papua New Guinea I 240 V 50 Hz
Paraguay C 220 V 50 Hz
Peru A, B, C 220 V 60 Hz Talara 110/220 V; Arequipa 50 Hz
Philippines A, B 220 V 60 Hz Most plugs and outlets are Type A, but some are B. Sockets and switches are built to USA dimensions and fit USA sized wall boxes. Some areas have 110V as in Baguio.
Poland C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Portugal C, F 220 V[9] 50 Hz
Puerto Rico A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Qatar D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Réunion E 220 V 50 Hz
Romania C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Virtually identical to German standards. Most household sockets still compatible with East European standards (4.0 mm pins). Industrial appliances (washing machines, welding equipment) use 3-phase 380V AC supply.
Russian Federation C, F 220 V 50 Hz USSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used type GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins instead of the 4.8mm standard used by West European (Schuko) Plugs. Now "Soviet" sockets could be seen mainly in old houses and in countryside. Obsolete standard 127 V/50 Hz AC is used in some remote villages. Elsewhere it was replaced in 1970s by the 220V standard. Industrial appliances use 3-phase 380V AC supply.
Rwanda C, J 230 V 50 Hz
St. Kitts and Nevis A, B, D, G 110 V
230 V 60 Hz Region plug is same as United States (2 pin) 110-120 V
St. Lucia (Winward Is.) G 240 V 50 Hz
St. Vincent (Winward Is.) A, C, E, G, I, K 230 V 50 Hz
São Tomé and Príncipe C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Saudi Arabia A, B, F, G 127 V
220 V 60 Hz
Senegal C, D, E, K 230 V 50 Hz
Serbia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Seychelles G 240 V 50 Hz
Sierra Leone D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Singapore G (but M for air conditioners and clothes dryers) 230 V 50 Hz Types A and C are used for audio/video equipment and plug adapters are widely available.
Slovakia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Slovenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz 3-phase 380 V AC used for heavy duty applications.
Somalia C 220 V 50 Hz
South Africa M 220 V 50 Hz Grahamstown & Port Elizabeth 250 V; also found in King Williams Town
Spain C, F 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz
Sri Lanka D, M, G 230 V 50 Hz Increased use of type G in new houses/establishments. Mainly in Colombo and high end hotels.
Sudan C, D 230 V 50 Hz
Suriname C, F 127 V 60 Hz
Swaziland M 230 V 50 Hz
Sweden C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Switzerland C, J 230 V 50 Hz C only in the form CEE 7/16.
Syria C, E, L 220 V 50 Hz
Tahiti A, B, E 110 V
220 V 60 Hz/50 Hz Marquesas Islands 50 Hz [10]
Taiwan A, B 110 V 60 Hz Most outlets are Type A. When an outlet is Type B, the ground (earth) holes are usually not connected to anything. Most appliances have Type A plugs, but some appliances have Type B plugs. Sockets and switches are built to USA dimensions and fit USA sized wall boxes. Dedicated sockets provide 220V for air conditioning units.
Tajikistan C, I 220 V 50 Hz
Tanzania D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Thailand A, B, C, F 220 V 50 Hz Outlets in hotels and newer buildings are usually a combination of types B and C which will accept plug types A, B and C while outlets in older buildings are usually type A. An equal proportion of appliances have type A or C plugs, or B if an Earth connection is required. Type F is mainly for high-powered appliances such as air conditioners, kettles and cookers. A 3-pin plug that only fits in B/C sockets is also seeing increased use, it differs from type B by having all the pins round. [11]
Togo C 220 V 50 Hz Lome 127 V.
Tonga I 240 V 50 Hz
Trinidad & Tobago A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Tunisia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Turkey C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Turkmenistan B, F 220 V 50 Hz
Uganda G 240 V 50 Hz
Ukraine C, F 220 V 50 Hz
United Arab Emirates C, D, G 220 V 50 Hz
United Kingdom G (D and M seen in very old installs and specialist applications) 230 V (formerly 240v) 50 Hz Voltage tolerance of 230 V +10%/−6% (216.2 V to 253 V), to be widened to 230 V ±10% (207 V to 253 V) in 2008. The system supply voltage will remain centered on 240v rms. [12] A 'shaver' socket (similar to Type C) is sometimes found in bathrooms that will provide low current to some other plug types. These almost always have a 110 V socket and a 240 V socket in the same unit, or a switch to select voltage, which are sometimes labelled as 115 V and 230 V. The G type socket often has a on-off switch on the socket. 110 V centre point earthed transformers are often used for industrial portable tools. IEC 60309 plugs and connectors are used in industrial and construction locations as well as for outdoor use in domestic and other business premises. Plug types D and M still in preferred use for theatre and TV stage lighting applications due to lack of internal fuse.
United States of America A, B 120 V 60 Hz Standardized at 120 V. Electricity suppliers aim to keep most customers supplied between 114 and 126 V most of the time. 240 V/60 Hz used for heavy duty applications such as air conditioners, clothes dryers, stoves, ovens, and water heaters. Buildings with more than two branch circuits will have both 120 and 240 V available. Type B outlets are now required by code in new construction and renovation. A T-slot Type B is rated for 20 Amperes for use in kitchens or other areas using large 120 V appliances.
Uruguay C, F, I, L 230 V (formerly 220v) 50 Hz Type F becoming more common as a result of computer use. Neutral and live wires are reversed, as in Argentina.
Uzbekistan C, I 220 V 50 Hz
Vanuatu I 230 V 50 Hz
Venezuela A, B 120 V 60 Hz Type G found in household 220V service only for air conditioning and some high power appliances.
Vietnam A, C 220 V 50 Hz Type A is the norm in Southern Vietnam and Type C is the norm in Northern Vietnam (according to the pre-unification border at 17 degrees North). Type G is found only in some new luxury hotels, primarily those built by Singaporean and Hong Kong developers. But Type G is never found in homes, shops, or offices.
Virgin Islands A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Western Samoa I 230 V 50 Hz
Yemen A, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zambia C, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zimbabwe D, G 220 V 50 Hz

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

The Future of our civilization in 3 steps

The begin of year 1963 was a very important year for civilization as we know, Russian astronomer Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev (Никола́й Семёнович Кардашёв – born on April 25, 1932 in Moscow) was examining quasar CTA-102 in the first Soviet quest in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and started to philosophate about extraterrestrial life and all achievements of mankind.

leia este artigo em Português

The result was released 22 years later in his work "On the Inevitability and the Possible Structures of Supercivilizations" in "The search for extraterrestrial life”

The basic ingredient for a decent standard life and to improve a society to prosperous levels is ENERGY. At the present moment we humans are getting most of the energy we need from dead plants and animals on the planet turned into coal, oil, etc.

Karadshev has developed a scale that has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. These are based on the amount of usable energy that a civilization have at their own disposal, and the degree of space colonization. In general terms, a Type I civilization have achieved mastery of the resources of our home planet as seen in Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, a “planetary civilization”, system. Star Trek with the United Federation of Planets and Starfleet colonization of few Star Systems correspond to Type II, a time when our civilization have achieved mastery of the resources of our own solar system. And Type III like the “Empire” in Star Wars, when we have achieved mastery of the resources of our own galaxy.

We are now in type 0 (ZERO) civilization because at the present moment, we are not able to achieve mastery of the resources on Earth. Far from it, we had almost destroyed ourselves many times during cold war, the best known of these episodes was in 1962 when military intervention by the United States in Cuba, that almost triggered a nuclear war perfectably capable of human race annihilation. That was the so called “Bay of Pigs episode”.

Japanese-American theoretical physicist Michiuo Kaku (加來 道雄 - January 24, 1947) says that the transition form type 0 to type 1 civilization could be the most dangerous period that a civilization can face. Mathematicians says that could exist thousands of Type 1 Civilization in the galaxy, and if is so, why we have not seen them yet?

Kaku says that in one hand we have cultural tolerance, good scientific growth, integration, but in other hand we have nuclear weapons, terrorism that works as obstacles to reaching Type I Civilization status. Perhaps no other civilization could make it to transform itself from a Type 0 into a Type I.

The current status of human civilization has thus been named Type 0. Although intermediate values were not discussed in Kardashev's original proposal, American astronomer Carl Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) calculated in 1973 grades between 0 and 1 in HUMANITY’S CIVILIZATION TYPE – HCT he stipulated that at that point Earth was to be 0.7, in relationship to Kardashev's model for Types 0 and I

Sagan used the formula:

Kaku posted that in 1900 our HCT was 0,58, in 2004 was 0,72 and that if we make use of large scale application of fusion power, Anti-matter production to be used in antimatter-matter collisions power plants, Solar energy, converting sunlight into electricity by either solar cells, etc. in the year 2100 we could get out of zero and reach HCT I.

The Great leap into a Type I civilization also encompasses economical and political changes, maybe in year 2110 could be read in headlines of the newspapers “Today was signed the first planetary trading block, we could buy antimatter from VULCANO with paying taxes” or “Despite all Chinese efforts English was approved as the new interplanetary official language”.

Even if in our Type I economy English would be the “planetary idiom” other languages will be spoken because people will have time and resources to stud and enjoy their own culture, cultural tolerance will tend grow with no limits because people learned from the process of reaching Type I that diversity was the great ingredient of evolution, poverty will be extinguished, because “now we can explore other planets and make use of abundant resources” , enterprises will not enter into a new business because of money; instead, they will pay more attention to improve employee’s personal skills, they will realize that this is the best way to prosper in a resourceful planetary system. Type I political system (adopted as one in the whole planet) is more equitable and maybe democracy will be replaced by “total democracy” (I have no idea how that would work).

Understanding our reality and the forces that could lead us into a Type I, II or III civilization, we could be the race (maybe the first) that will prosper beyond the limits of a planet, solar system or galaxy.

Blemya Search