Saturday, May 28, 2016

Similarities between cauim and sake

Luiz Pagano visited Brazilian indigenous tribes to search the cauim / above - Yasutaka Daimon explains relationship of the sake to Japanese religions
The latest research on the Cauim and how this beverage could be produced on a large scale, with high quality standard, generated a number of difficulties, which oddly enough, the only obtained solution was found by researching the old methods of sake of production.

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The sake and cauim has much in common, almost two thousand years ago, the Japanese believed that sake could only be produced if the rice were pre-chewed by virgins, known as bijinshu or 美人酒 or ʺbeatiful women of sake”, the same happens in Brazil, tribes of almost all indigenous ethnic groups have virgins who chew manioc (sort of Brazilian cassava) and spit in a pot so that can ferment.

Actually, the alcoholic fermentation only occurs when fungi transform sugars into alcohol, rice as much as cassava contains no sugar in natura, so they are not ready for fermentation, so chewing, not necessarily by virgins, becomes necessary, human saliva contains an enzyme called amylases, which breaks down starch molecules into sugar.
Indian tribes producing cauim compared to ancient Japanese people producing sake

Japanese people drank saké even before their first contact with China. The Kojiki (古事記), "Records of Ancient Matters"  written during the Nara period (710‐94) suggests that the first saké in Japan was called Kuchikami no sake, (口噛みの酒) or chewing‐in‐the mouth sake.ʺ

Other countries produce starch wines around the world, Chicha made from corn in Central America, the Cheongju a type of rice wine of Korea and Hariya also made out of rice in India.

It is well known that long before the arrival of Europeans, people coming from Asia were already living in the Americas. The Zuni tribe has left perplexed anthropologists with their language, they speak a language so similar to the Japanese that could hardly be seen as coincidence.

Some similar words as for example; To be Inside in Japanese is 'uchi', in Zuni is also 'Uchi', the word used in Japanese for Yes is 'Hai' for both languages, and thus continues for many other words. Both Zuni and Japanese use the verb as the last word of a sentence, a feature only 45% of languages share. This might not seem like much, but the Zuni language is very different in this than other languages around them.
Above - A Zuni rosette, below - Imperial Seal Japan - See how face painting resembles the Japanese kabuki masks

Davis; Nancy Yaw; "The Zuni Enigma," NEARA Journal, 27:39, Summer/Fall 1993. NEARA = New England Antiquities Research Association.

My research on the production of cauim, which began by the chewing process, and went to the use of synthetic amylase and inevitably led me to use fungi, technique used in Japan and in Brazil by producer tiquira from the Brazilian states of Piaui and Maranhão.

In a methodical manner I was taken to visit factories in Piauí, Maranhão and finally in Japan, where I had an illuminating insight.

I’m graduated in international business, I wanted to know the culture of the peoples around the world, after the initial frustration in financial market, I’ve found in alcoholic beverages the perfect vehicle to become intimate to cultural knowledge. An alcoholic beverage goes far beyond mere fluid that make us drunk, they are closely related to the human soul.

Take a Burgundy wine and understand the spirit of its people, the wine is closely linked to the Catholic religion, is an essential part of the Eucharistic and thus, vines were tested in churches in different parts around the globe, creating wines that expresses in better or worse forms, in the various terroires all around the world.
Luiz Pagano drinking in a calabash - to drink cauim and/or its variations the Indigenous peoples hold the bowl with both hands, in contemplative gesture as Japanese people does.

The same goes for the sake, which is closely related the Shinto and Buddhist religions in Japan.

The traditional religious beliefs of the Japanese people, in common with most of Brazil's indigenous peoples, are a based upon a mixture of respect for the abundance of nature, a fear of natural disasters, and respect for ancestors. The concept of god in Japan is not that of an omnipotent creator of all things like we believe in occident.

According to Daimon Yasutaka, sixth-generation Japanese sake brewer, owner of Daimon Brewery, producer of Mukune Junmai Ginjo and Tozai Honjozo and Nigorion, head of Japanese Sake Export Association (SEA) the “Naorai”, the act of first offer food and drink to the gods is related to yearly festivals, called "matsuri" in Japan (very similar ideas are found in Brazilian indigenous tribes).
Luiz Pagano trip to Japan to research koji - to the right - Luiz Pagano asking for blessings in a Buddhist temple
for Cauim project

All this rich spiritual involvement that I noticed with the trip, along with the huge accumulated knowledge for hundreds of years of the Japanese people, made me realize that the different varieties of Koji (麹 菌 Koji-kin, fungi used to replace the saliva of virgins) together with multiple production characteristics that go far beyond the simple breakdown of starch to obtain the alcohol, (different types of koji also has the property to break down proteins and lipids, offering multiple options), reaching an infinite range of flavors of options that only the spirit of an artist is able to conceive.

Behold! A new world of flavors is about to present itself when the first bottles of cauim start moving out of several Brazilian producers.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Capybaras mobilized to save Brazilian rivers

The Capybara is an ambassador of nature, the dare to arrive to the Brazilian cities and to swim in its heavy polluted rivers. Capivara Parade was created in 2008 by Luiz Pagano, with the purpose of calling public attention to the indifference that public administrators have with Brazilian waters.
Last May 23 in the city of Curitiba-Brazil, a Capybara Parade entitled 'Capi Parade' was launched in the same format of Pascal Knapp’s CowParade, at Palladium Shopping Center, "The capybara is a symbol of Curitiba, besides being an extremely adaptable animal is often found in man-altered environments," says marketing manager Palladium, Maria Aparecida de Oliveira, who decided to show 8 capybaras in allusion to the eighth anniversary inauguration of the mall.

Leia este artigo em Português

According to Luiz Pagano, creator of 'Capybara Parade movement', public mobilization that lead to decontamination of rivers in other cities of the world, such as the River Thames in London and the Han River in South Korea, has not happened in Brazil, 'Capybara Parade' was created in 2008, with the purpose of calling public attention to the indifference that public administrators have towards Brazilian waters.

After the incident in which a dam holding back water from an iron ore burst near Mariana contaminate lots of rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, and a few months left to the opening of Olympics games, with the waters of the bay of Guanabara completely filthy, Brazilian authorities really shows the total ineptitude with regard to the basic care that the rivers and lakes of almost every Brazilian cities should have.

And it is in this scenario that the capybara surges as a hero. The world's largest rodent that lives in the Brazilian forests boldly appears swimming in rivers highly polluted cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and walking in groups along its banks.

“The Capybara is an ambassador of nature, dare to arrive in the cities and to swim in the rivers and lakes that we degrade, they seem to show us as a protest, that the rivers of our cities are no latrines, but spaces for living and beauty” says Luiz Pagano.

The exhibition at Palladium Mall in Curitiba, which began on May 23, goes up to June 5. On 4 and 5 June, the children who pass through the mall can paint mini plaster capybaras. "The intention of the Palladium is to aware the children about the preservation of nature, as well as providing a playful experience of painting," adds marketing manager.
Concept artist Luiz Pagano at the opening of 'Capi Parade', promoted by Palladium Mall - the animal is also symbol of the city of Curitiba, one of the most sustainable cities in Brazil

To celebrate the World Environment Day, from 6 to 12 June. the ‘Capi Parade’ leaves in flock to the itinerant exhibition in various touristic sights of Curitiba, at the end of the action, the pieces will be donated and auctioned by the auctioneer Helcio Kronberg. The value fetched from the auction, the auctioneer's commission and the work of artists are donations and will be reversed in blankets to the campaign 'Donate Heat', of Curitiba performed by the Pro-Citizenship Institute and the Social Action Foundation ( FAS).

The event also includes the participations Brazilian celebrities, the 'Capybara Bi-articulated' had artistic intervention of architect and urban planner Jaime Lerner, in reference to the bus created by him, another wears a jersey of Brazilian soccer selection that will be autographed by Pelé, the king of football, after the auction, with a dedication to the winning bidder.

Friday, March 4, 2016

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'
Last February 11, LIGO experiment has proved that gravitational waves exists and opened a new era of astrophysics, right?

- Wrong, two brothers from Dayton, OH, became the first people to prove the existence of such waves, three years ago.

leia esta matéria em Português

- But they have witnesses?

- Yes, some people who were near saw it.

Today an affirmation as these would be considered ridiculous, misplaced and with total lack of criteria - an absurd, but it was exactly what happened to Santos-Dumont.

The morning of November 12th 1906 the world was in ecstasy, for the first time the man was able to achieve the maximum dream, flying with a self-powered machine heavier-than-air in the presence of the scientific community, reporters from various countries of the world and many more hundreds of people.

Some days later, American media frivolously discredited him by saying that brothers from Dayton, OH had already flown three years before Mr. Dumont, in the presence of 4 or 5 passers-by.

Santos-Dumont has devoted much of his life to the flight, thoroughly studied the birds and the dynamics of flight, flew in several balloons baskets, airships designed by him in 15 years of research, created 14 previous inventions until he could effectively fly that day.

But for the sake of history, Japanese community is very careful and devoted to judicious affirmations and is from Japan that comes the rescue of truth.

The last edition of AGORA, a magazine for top executives distributed to passengers with a particularly high usage rate from among JAL passengers annually, brings an extensive article that describes the amazing truth about Santos=Dumont’s life, and about the historical distortions that led the Wright Brothers to the improper glory, and thrown Santos-Dumont to oblivion.

But now, things start to change, the article leaves no doubt:

“...What really made Santos-Dumont best known all over the world, was his performances in 1906 in the Bois de Boulogne with a funny powered kite-shaped airplane, named (Bis). He flew 60 meters. (The flight of Santos-Dumont was done in front of thousands of witnesses, including scientists and newspaper reporters, whereas the flight 1903 of Wright brothers was attended by only five common people).
Santos=Dumont Club - history of the the man who gave wings to mankind - Santos=Dumont

Thus, Santos-Dumont becomes adored as the first man to achieve the biggest dream of humanity,

'No, the first fly the skies with a precarious flying machine were the Wright brothers, for that no one would have the good sense to question about'

This hypothetical "historical fact" is what erroneously remains in people's minds of the XXI century around the world. But "good sense" confirms that the first to have won the heavens was the Brazilian citizen living in Paris, Alberto Santos-Dumont.

If 100 years ago, or more, you asked someone anywhere in the world, even in crowded streets of Ginza, "Do you know who Santos-Dumont is?", People probably would say yes. Today perhaps some people might remember him, just because the famous series 'Cartier Santos watches' (in fact, the watch was originally conceived to allow Santos-Dumont to monitor time while maneuvering his dirigible, it was presented by his dear friend, Louis Cartier).

What remains is that bad feeling that Santos-Dumont is another orphan child left in the immense darkness of history.”
Some other Japanese Magazines about Santos=Dumont

Original article, written in Japanese

彼の名をさらに世界に知ら しめたのは〇六年一〇月二二日、 ブーローニュの森で箱型凧のよう な奇妙な形の動力付飛行機『 bis』でやってのけた約六〇メ ートルの飛行だった。

この時、世界はまだライト兄弟のライト・フライヤー号による〇三年の飛行成 功を知らない(サントス デュモ ンの飛行が科学者や新聞記者を含 む何千人という証人の前で成され た一方、ライト兄弟のそれを見た のはわずか五人の一般人だった)。

 為に、サントス デュモンは人類 の夢を叶えた男として大いにもて はやされ、時代の寵児となる。

行機で空を飛んだのはア メリカのライト兄弟である──こ れは誰も異論を差し挟むことのな い常識だろう。けれども、二〇世 紀初頭のある時期、世界の大方の 人々が信じていたのは別の「歴史 的事実」だった。当時の「常識」に よれば、最初に空を制したのはパ リに住むブラジル人、アルベルト・ サントス デュモンである。

  その頃から一〇〇余年を経た今 日、例えば東京・銀座の街角で一 〇〇〇人に「サントス デュモン を知っていますか?」と訊いて、 いったい何人がイエスと答えるだ ろう? もしかしたら、数人の時 計好きがカルティエのサントス・ ウォッチのことを思い出すかもし れない(その腕時計は、元々ルイ・ カルティエが畏友サントス デュ モンのために、飛行船操縦の時に 便利なようにと考案したものだっ た)。
こと ほ ど さ よ う に サ ン ト スデュモンの名は歴史の暗がりの 中に置き去りにされてしまった感 がある。

The Japanese have always given due weight to history and the achievements of Santos-Dumont. In 1976 there was a club exclusively dedicated to the aviation pioneer his noble memory.
Santos=Dumont Club - Japan 1976

Led by Master Morita, the club was known for foster interchange of information between the Foundation Santos-Dumont, administrated at that time by deputy president, Fernando E. Lee.

In 2004, while researching the real history of human flight discovery, two magazines published articles about the life of Santos=Dumont, the Seven Seas magazine dedicated to luxury consumers and members of the Seven Seas Club, which features 45 pages with wonderful photos showing places frequented by Santos=Dumont in Brazil and in the world and a special edition of 世界の腕時計. (The World of watches), both deal with how Santos-Dumont, a creative genius, elegant man who makes insightful research comes inventing the heavier-than-air in a thorough inventive process, but falling in the days public oblivion today, then I transcribe the text of The World of watches.

“...At October 22, 1906, a bizarre shaped flight machine, such as a box kite took off in the gardens of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and flew 60m.

It was a huge success in Europe's when the first powered flight took place. Designed and maneuvered by Santos-Dumont, the bamboo flying machine had a wingspan of 12m, total length 10m, all covered with Japanese-made silk, the canard style airship called 14-bis (bis means "again”, because it was the 14th attempt to construct a flying machine, completely designed and tested by him).

Three weeks later he flew 100m with the same airship, and was awarded with the Archdeacon prize, to be given for "the one who first fly an aircraft heavier than air, for more than 100m”.

But then, the Wright Brothers arrived announcing that they had already flown, on December 17, 1903 in the United States, a successful flight of 12 seconds in the light ‘Flyer1’, at the presence of observers. And thus, Santos-Dumont lost the honor to be the world's first to fly).
Team of Masako Mori and Professor Ricardo Magalhaes, doing their research at S=D museum in Petrópolis
Santos-Dumont has emigrated to Paris in 1891, he was a stylished dressed, small statured man who divided his time in car races and dinners in first-class restaurants, and he had always shown great interest in flying through the skies. In 1898 he drifted in empty space, with his first, small balloon, designed by him. After this first invention, he has conceived 14 more flying machines, 10 of them were dirigibles, with the dirigible No 6, and he was the first man to maneuver a dirigible, in a pre-determined route around the Eiffel Tower, in limited time and by this, won the Deutsch Prize. After that he has designed 4 more airplanes, until reach the success in flying with his14-Bis. In 1907 he hits his peak with the invention of his last airplane, with a full-length of 8m, the “Demoiselle”, was both elegant and delicate.”
世界 の 腕時計. (World of Watches) on Cartier Santos Watches 

1906 10 月 22 日、 パリ · ブローニュ の 森で箱凧のような 奇怪 な 形の飛行機械が飛び立ち 、 60mを飛行した 。

ヨーロッパ 初の動力飛行の成功だった。 操縦するの は設計者でもあるサ・ントス - デュモン 、 飛行機械は竹と日本製 シルクで作られた 翼幅 12m 、 全長 10 m 、 先尾翼機14- ビス ( ビスとは "再び の 意で, 彼 は テスト機 14号篠を設計 し ていた)。 それから 3 週間後 、 彼 は 同じ機体で100 m を飛行 し 、「初めて重航空機で100m を飛行した者」 に与え られた アルクデアコン賞 を受賞した。 しかし 1903 年12月17日に アメ リカで ライト兄弟が ライトフライヤ 1で12秒の 飛行に成功したことが後 に認められ 、 世界初の栄誉 は 逃してしまう。

1891年、パリに移住したサントス-デュモンは 小粋な身なりをした社交界の新参者であった。 自動車 レースに出たり 、 一流レストランで食事を したりと遊んではいたが 、 彼 のいちばんの興味は空を飛ぶこと。 1898 年には自ら設計した 小型気球 「 ブラジル号 」 でパリの 空を漂った。その後、 14- ビスまでに 10機の飛行船を設計したが 、 なかでも6号機は制限時間内にエッフェル 塔を周回し 、 ドゥーチ 賞を 獲得した 。 14-ビス後、 4機の飛行機を設計した、 いずれも失敗に終わってしまう。 そして 1907年 、最後に設計した全長 8m の華奢で優美な姿の 「 ドゥモアゼル 」 が 飛び上がった。

'Unsolved mysteries' and 'rewriting the history of aviation'

Japanese community has always had great expressiveness in the Brazilian Aviation, Brazil has the largest Japanese community outside Japan - Ricardo Magalhaes - vice president of the Institute A. Santos Dumont, Luiz Pagano - blogger of Santos-Dumont and the first Japanese descent who reached the highest rank of the institution, Lieutenant-Brigadier of the Air Masao Kawanami - at back, Japanese garden and plaque honoring Japanese-Brazilian community at Medical Center/Hospital Sao Paulo Air Force Base
Why public opinion worldwide has decided to adopt the brothers’ and to abandon Santos-Dumont?

To answer this question, I invite the reader to make a more thorough investigation. Nonetheless, I venture to say that the beginning of the century was a time of great discoveries, the supremacy of the countries was evaluated by the way they presented their inventions in world fairs. The United States of America were the inventors of marketing and have always dominated the state propaganda - Why then a man belonging to an unexpressive country, of a newly liberated colony of Portugal, would be entitled to primacy of the flight?

———

Addendum -  May 20, 2016

Latter April 29th, 2016, Luiz Pagano went in Japan representing the Institute ALBERTO SANTOS=DUMONT, to grant the 'Merit Flies Man' to the whole team of Agora magazine for the excellent article mentioned in the post above.
Luiz Pagano, went to Japan on behalf of Institute ALBERTO SANTOS=DUMONT, to grant the MERIT MAN FLIES to Masako Hori, responsible for editorial department and brand communication of AGORA Magazine and Yasuyuki Ukita, writer, journalist and a great connoisseur of Santos=Dumont. UKita himself is a direct descendant of Kokichi Ukita (浮田幸吉 1757-1847) japanese pioner of flight.

Diplomas were given to Masako Hori's editorial department and brand communication of AGORA Magazine and Yasuyuki Ukita, writer and journalist, a great connoisseur of Santos-Dumont and air navigation pioneers, himself a descendant of Kokichi Ukita (浮田幸吉 1757-1847) Japanese pioneer of flight, who perfumed many flies with special wings conceived and built by himself.

The 'Merit Man Flies', was established by the Instituto Alberto Santos=Dumont, set up by his VP, Ricardo Magalhães and aims to recognize people who are willing to engage in activities that celebrate the memory of Santos=Dumont and its ideals.

To understand this honor, we must go back in time, when Santos=Dumont was still a little boy, time when there was a child's play in which, a kid asked questions out loud, such as "can pigeon fly", "can chicken fly?", "can vulture fly?" "can bee fly?" and so on?.

At every call, the kids should put up the finger and respond. But sometimes, from time to time, some one of them maliciously raised an absurd question, such as: "can dog fly?", "can fox fly?" or some similar nonsense in order to surprise the playmates, the inattentive ones used to raise their finger accompanied by a wrong answer. To penalize thouse distracted ones, friends demanded ridiculous penalties, just for fun.

When Santos=Dumont heard the question "can man fly?" Many years before his deeds, he replied, "Man Flies!" With absolute certainty intonation, and obstinately refused to pay the penalty.

Because of this naive child’s play, paradoxical and prophetical in essence, we create the MAN FLIES tribute; Santos=Dumont was indeed a WINGED being who dreamed of the individual flight, as did mythological character Icarus. Most certainly, Santos=Dumont solved the problem of human flight addressing all available methods known by science at his epoch, from the lighter-than-air with balloons and airships, and then the heavier-than-air, by creating biplanes and monoplanes – he even dare to idealize the ornithopter’s flight, (he had been deemed as lunatic by the naysayers because of that) which nowadays, we are experimenting the first steps, hundred years after his first demonstrations.

Many say that Santos=Dumont did more than deliver the beautiful dream of flight to humanity, judging by the elegant design of his inventions, we dare to say that he wore his flying inventions, putting himself personally into in the wicker basket, one can say without fear that Santos=Dumont invented 'flying costumes'.

Creativity and innovative mind, which allows men beyond their time, to ignore real or metaphorical gravity and achieve flight, is a gift that you have, and so the Institute ALBERTO SANTOS=DUMONT recognizes you as an individual that truly believes that MAN FLIES.


Publications mentioned in this article

Agora Magazine – february 27th, 2016 (March issue/16)
Publishing House - JAPAN AIRLINES CO. LTD
40-8637 Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo Higashi 2-4-11
Report 堀 雅子 (Masako Hori)
Jornalist Yasuyuki Ukieta,
Photographer Taisuke Yoshida

日本 サントス · ドゥモン クラブ -1976
Santos=Dumont Club Japan
Directed by Master Morita, in Japan
Technical partner in Brazil Fernando E. Lee - VP in exercise of the Santos=Dumont Foundation

Magazine 世界の腕時計 (The World of Watches) – august 20th 2004
# 70
Editorial & Corporate Headquarter 3-39-2 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8551 Japan
Publisher: KESAHARO IMAI
Editor in Chief TOMOKO KAYAMA

Seven Seas Magazine (セブン シーズ) – July 7th,  2004
# 191
International Luxury Media and Club Seven Seas
Publisher: International Luxury Media
Copyright(c) 2002-2016 Fujisan Magazine Service Co., Ltd.


Sunday, February 14, 2016

All Indigenous people in Brazil

1mi people, 305 ethnic groups speaking 274 different Languages in Brazil
There is a whole universe of cultures in Brazil, that even the vast majority of Brazilians do not have a clue of their existence. There are approximately one million people, belonging to 305 ethnic groups speaking 274 different languages. Blemya did her homework and brought together more than 241 ethnic groups of Indigenous people in Brazil.

Read This article in Portuguese

In order not to stigmatize real people and their cultures, and to eliminate the 'boredom', Blemya has  adopted the Tupi-Pop profile of her blogs, and decided to depict each race through Toy Arts, and just like the hundreds of Pokemon, Naruto characters, etc., indigenous ethnic groups will be subject of easy understanding to the Otakus* of the Tupi-Pop culture.

 Pib Socioambiental beautiful work served as framework for this study, it was the most organized and well arranged research on the subject, so by clicking on a specific ethnic group that does not have an illustrated character, the link will led you to original site. Unfortunately, texts still are written in Portuguese, but in time, I’ll translate all of them into English.

From the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese in 1500, Europeans began to have a major contact with the Tupi-Guarani tribes who were spread across almost the entire Brazilian coast. The Tupi-Guarani called the indigenous people of different languages as 'Tapuia' - which in their language meant "enemy". The word ‘Tapuia’ was incorporated by Europeans and they started to believe that there were only two major indigenous nations: the Tupi-Guarani and Tapuia.

The Tapuias was considered by Europeans as more primitive, difficult to catechize, and to conquer, so they were fought and exterminated - many of the individuals and their tribes have disappeared so completely that don’t exist even a single direct record of their existence.

In the nineteenth century, the German scientist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius traveled to a large part of Brazilian territory and proposed a division of Brazilian Indians according to a linguistic criterion. Based on this criterion, he created the ‘Gê’ group, which included tribes that spoke similar languages and who used to call themselves by utilizing the gê particle, meaning "father", "boss" or "ancestor".  An alternative name, according to Martius itself, would 'cram' because in this group was also widely used to cran particle ("son", "Down") for the appointment of the tribes. Much of the ancient tribes of Tapuias was encompassed by the Gê group.

In the early twentieth century, anthropologists began to reject the name "Tapuia" and adopted the name "GES" for this other group of language families. In 1953, the Brazilian Association of Anthropology took the form "Gê" in lieu of "Ge". With the spelling reform, which advocated the use of "j" instead of "g" for the coming terms of Brazilian indigenous languages, the word "Gê" came to be spelled "JJE".

Because they have similarities in their origins is possible to classify the linguistic groups and linguistic trunks - the linguist Morris Swadesh has an important work of classification that besides the genetic lineage, took into account the method known as glottochronology, which is determined primarily from a basic vocabulary of a hundred or two common terms, which are the true cognates (words that demonstrate being derived from a single ancestral word). A rate of 81% of cognates indicate five centuries since the two languages are separated; 36% indicate approximately 2,500 years of separation; 12% some 5,000 years.

Unfortunately the native languages of indigenous Brazilian tribes are among the most endangered in the world. If you lived in the village of São Paulo de Piratininga (today the megalopolis of São paulo) 300 years ago, you would be speaking Indian language. Only 2 out of every 5 inhabitants of the city knew the Portuguese. So in 1698, the provincial governor, Artur de Sa e Meneses, begged Portugal to only send priests who knew "the general language of the Indians", because "these people can not be catechized in another language"

For reasons like these, according to a classification made by the National Geographic Society and the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, the Indian languages started being replaced by Spanish and Portuguese in Brazil's border with Bolivia and Paraguay, in the Andes and the Chaco region, the researchers found. For example, less than 20 people speak Ofaié, and less than 50 are able to express in Guató.

Most countries were built on top of people's destruction, Brazil is one of the few that still has an important chance to redeem its identity and to learn from the remnant.

In order to better understand Brazilian natives, the groups were divided in 20 ethnic groups, four of them are the most important, the Tupi, Macro Ge, Arawak and Karib, as described below:



Tupi group Toy Art

1 - Tupi Group

The term "Tupi" has two meanings: one generic and other specific. The general sense of the term refers to the Indians who inhabited the Brazilian coast in the 16th century and spoke the language Tupi Antigo (old Tupi). The specific meaning of the term refers to the Indians who inhabited the region the Brazilian coast including the current city of São Vicente, at the same time, were the first Indians to have contact with the Portuguese who arrived here.

The Tupi Group is divided into 10 families: Tupi-Guarani, Arikém, Aweti, Juruna, Mawé, Puroborá, Mundurukú, Ramarama and Tupari.


Macro-Ge group in Toy Art

2 - Macro-Ge Group

The languages of the Macro-Ge trunk bequeathed a few words to the Portuguese language, though not as eloquently as the languages of the Tupi. Generally, they are toponymes  of the southern part of Brazil, originated in Caingangue language as Goioerê, Xanxerê, Erechim, Erebango Ere Campo, Goioxim, Brazil, Nonoai, etc.

Grupo Aruak em Toy Art

3 – Arwak Group

The Arawak languages or Nuaruaques, Arawaks, Aruak - form a family of Amerindian languages of South America and the Caribbean Sea. Arawak languages are spoken in much of the territory of the Americas to the south of Paraguay, and northern countries of the north coast of South America, such as Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela.

According to linguist Aryon Rodrigues, this language, also known as Lokono, was spoken in some West Indian islands like Trinidad. When Europeans stated their colonization of the Caribbean, the Arawak people divided with the Karib people. they were the first to have contact with the Europeans. As Karib, the Arawak people name came to be used to designate the set of languages found within the continent and related to the Arawak language. Also according to this author, this set of languages was also called Maipure or Nu-Arawak and corresponds to what Carl Friedrich von Martius for more than a century called Guck or Coco.

Karib group in Toy Art

4 - Karib Group

The Carib languages, Caribes, Karib, Caribas, Caraíbas are an indigenous language family of Central America and South America. It is scattered throughout northern South America, from the mouth of the Amazon River to the Colombian Andes, but also appears in central Brazil. The Carib languages are relatively close together.

Aikanã, Arawá, Guaikurú and Iranxé groups in Toy Art

5 - Aikanã Group

Aikanã (also known as Aikanã, Massacá, Massaká, Huari, Corumbiara, Kasupá, Mundé, Tubarão, Winzankyi) is a Brazilian indigenous people that speak the language Aicanã. The Aikanã live in the state of Rondônia, in the Guaporé River basin. Its three villages are part of the Indigenous Land Tubarão Latundê, located 100 kilometers from the border with Bolivia and 180 kilometers from the nearest city, Vilhena.

6 - Group Arauá

The Arawá, (also known as Arauá, Deni, Jarawara, Kanamanti, Kulina, Paumari, Jamamandi and Zuruahá) are indigenous groups that inhabits the southwestern Brazilian state of Amazonas, specifically the "Deni Indigenous Land", located in the municipalities Itamarati and Tapauá.

The first contacts with the white man the probably happened in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.

The Arawá are among the indigenous groups of the region rivers Juruá and Purus which, in the 1940s, have suffered the impact of the second rubber boom, which attracted thousands of migrants. Through these came diseases, violent territorial disputes and exploitation of indigenous labor. Since then, Arawá had to wait decades to have their guaranteed territorial rights, and need to start a self-demarcation of the land campaign, with the support of some NGOs, to then get the official demarcation, which was only completed in August 2003.

7 - Guaikurú Group

The term refers Guaicurus indigenous groups whose languages belong to Guaicuru linguistic family. They were notorious for being a warrior tribe that used horses for hunting and attacks. Migrated to Brazil, in the region of Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, fleeing from colonization in the northern region of Paraguay.

8 - Group Iranxé

The Irantxe (are also known as Iranxe), are located in Mato Grosso-MT and according to data from FUNASA-2010 has a population of 379 inhabitants. Manoki, as they call themselves, are best known as Irantxe, whose language has no similarity with other linguistics families. His story, however, is not very different from most of the Indians in Brazil, were virtually decimated as a result of massacres and diseases from contact with whites. In the mid-twentieth century, most of the survivors saw no alternative but to live in a Jesuit mission, responsible for the profound socio-cultural disintegration of the group.

Jabuti, Kanoê, Katukina and Kwazá groups in Toy Art

9 - Jabuti Group

The Jabutis (they are also known as Djeoromitxí and Arikapu) are an indigenous group that inhabits the southern Brazilian state of Rondônia, the more precisely Rio Branco Indigenous Areas, Guaporé River and Indigenous Land Jabuti. In the past the tribe was very threatened by the presence of garimpeiros in its original area, a fact partly resolved by the demarcation of their lands.

Most jabuti language speakers also speak Portuguese and there are others who still know how to communicate through other indigenous languages.

10 - Kanoê Group

The Kanoê (brasílic ethnonym) or canoes are an indigenous group that inhabits the southern Brazilian state of Rondonia, specifically the Rio Branco Indigenous Lands and Rio Guaporé.

Massacre

In 1985, the canoes farmers have suffered attacks in Corumbiará, municipality that gives name to the documentary Franco-Brazilian Vincent Carelli. It is not known how many indigenous people (among them the Akuntsu ethnicity) were killed, but it is speculated that it was using a bulldozer, it serves to clear large areas.

11 - Katukina Group

Catuquinas or Katukina is a denominated a name to at least three indigenous groups:

The first, the Katukina language family, called Katukina Rio Biá, located on the river Jutaí region in southwestern Amazonas state, on indigenous lands Paumari the Cuniuá, Paumari Lake Paricá, Rio Biá and Tapauá.

Katukina are also called two groups of linguistic pano family, located in the state of Acre. But neither of these two pano groups recognize the term "Katukina" as a self. One of them, located on the banks of the Envira river, near the town of Feijó, calls himself-Shanenawa and would be part of a clan Yawanawá people.

"Since time immemorial, the Yawanawá, the people of the jawbone, occupy the headwaters of the Gregório River, an affluent of the Juruá, geographically belonging to the municipality of Tarauacá, Acre. Its current population is 636 people and belongs to the linguistic branch Pano. The families are distributed in communities Nova Esperança, Mutum, Escondido, Tiburcio and Matrinxã. the communities are formed by Yawanawá families, Arara, Kãmãnawa (people of the jaguar), Iskunawa (Japó people), Ushunawa (people of color white), Shanenawa ( people blue bird), Rununawa (the snake people) and Kaxinawá (the bat people). "

But the other group, called Katukina-Pano, inhabitant of villages located on the banks of Campinas and Gregório rivers, does not recognize any meaning in the name "Katukina" in their language, but accepts the name. They tell their members that she was "given by the government." However, in recent years, young indigenous leaders have encouraged the consolidation of the designation of Noke Kuin, Noke Noke Kui or Koi (in Portuguese, "real people") for the group. Internally, six other self-denominations are used which refer to the six clans in which the group is divided. It was observed that these names are almost identical to the names of some clans Marubo people, with which Katukina-called Pano present several other linguistic and cultural similarities.

12 - Kwazá Group

The Kwazá (also Coaia or Koaia ) are an Amerindian people inhabiting the southern Brazilian state of Rondônia, the region where they lived since time immemorial. After opening the BR-364 road, in the 1960s, farmers drove them out of fertile land where they lived and in 2008 formed a society of only 40 individuals, living in the Indigenous Land Tubarão Latundê in the municipality of Chupinguaia, along with Aikanã and Latundê. Most of them are mixed with Aikanã. There's another mixed family Kwazá and Aikanã living in Indigenous Kwazá the San Pedro River. They speak a language isolate that is threatened with extinction.

Maku, Mura, Nambikwara and Pano groups Toy Art

13 - Maku Group

The Macus is a Brazilian indigenous group divided in subgroups called Daw, Hupda, Iuhupde and Nadebe.

The term, however, may refer to an indigenous group inhabiting the Brazilian state of Roraima and that would have merged with iecuanas the twentieth century. According to Jorge Pozzobon (1955-2001) is common in the region the distinction between so-called "river Indians", speaks of Tukano and Arawak, and the "kill the Indian," says Maku. The approximately three thousand Maku (1999) are distributed in an area between Brazil and Colombia in an area of approximately 20 million hectares, which are dispersed by patches of forest, limited the north by the river Guaviare (Colombian tributary of the Orinoco River) north by the Negro river, south by the river Japura and the southeast by the river Uneiuxi (Brazilian affluent of Negro).

14 - Mura Group

The Mura is a Brazilian indigenous group that inhabits the center and the east of Amazonas state, specifically in indigenous areas Boa Vista, Capybara, Cuia, Cunha, Hawk, Guapenu, Itaitinga, Lake Aiapoá, Murutinga Christmas / Happiness, Onça, Padre, Paracuhuba, Recreation / San Felix, San Pedro, Tracajá, Trench, Méria, Miratu, Tabocal and Pantaleão.

15 - Nambikwara Group
The Nambikwara, also called Anunsu, Anunzê, Nambikwara, Nambikuára, Nambikwara, Nhambikuara or Nhambiquara are a Brazilian indigenous people. They are located in western Mato Grosso and Rondônia.

In 1999 amounted to 1145 individuals. Their customs are hunting and gathering and rarely had contact with non-Indians until 1965, when non-Indians began to invade their land for mining and illegal logging.

Its subgroups are Nambiquara do Campo (Mato Grosso and Rondonia), North Nambikwara (Mato Grosso and Rondonia), the Nambikwara Sararé (Mato Grosso) and Southern Nambikwara (Mato Grosso).

16 - Group Pano

Pano are indigenous groups whose languages belong to the Pano linguistic family. In the past, they were called bearded.

According to some linguists, the term pejorative pano: comes from panobu, which would mean "the willows", not being a self-designation of these people, but rather, a heteronym given by people belonging to other language families.

People belonging to the Pano family are located in the far west of the Brazilian Amazon and in the region corresponding to the Andean piedmont, Peru.

All people whose names are terminated by -nawa suffix -náua or -nauá belong to this group: Kaxinawá, Yawanawá, Shawanawá (or Shawadawã) Shanenawá, Jaminawa, among others. Also belong to this group and the Marubo Corubo (Javari Valley) and Shipibo (Peru Juruá-Ucaially). The Katukina Acre also speak a Pano language family (not to be confused with the Katukina of Amazonas). Apparently -náua suffix or -nawa means "people" or "people", plus a given name indicates that this people clan belongs. Eg Shanenaua (people of Blue Bird), Yawanawá (jawbone people), etc. People Pano or nawa share not only linguistic similarities but also in traditional songs, in ritual practices in traditional stories and body painting, and other aspects of their culture.

Trumai, Tikuna, Txapakura and Yanomami groups in Toy Art

17 - Trumai Group

The Trumai an isolated language and really committed, was the last group to arrive at the Xingu. There are now only 30 speakers and children no longer learn the language, preferring to speak Portuguese, although some of them also speak other languages Xingu, as Kamayará the Aweti or Suyá.

18 - Tikuna Group

The Tikuna (Tikuna, Tucuna or Maguta) is an Amerindian people who live currently the border between Peru and Brazil and the Amazonian Trapezium, in Colombia. Form a society of more than 50 000 individuals, split between Brazil (36,000), Colombia (eight thousand) and Peru (seven thousand), being the most numerous indigenous people of the Brazilian Amazon.

19 - Group Txapakura

The Txapakura, came from regions basins, streams, affluent and headwater streams located in southwestern Amazonia. Occupied regions of the Lage river basins and river basins of Ouro Preto, the igarapé of the Grotto, the stream Santo André and the stream Rio Negro, the right bank affluent of Mamore where it came from one of their denominations.

However, until the early twentieth century they remained isolated, perhaps because they lived in hard to reach areas or little economic interest. The Waris, the Txapakuras group has been mentioned for the first time in history by Colonel Ricardo Franco in 1798, found the riverbanks Pacaás Novos.

This situation has to change with the development of the rubber vulcanization process, which took place in the mid nineteenth century, which led to the search for this raw material in the forests, hitherto little explored.

20 - Yanomami Group

The Ianomâmis, Yanomami Yanoama Yanomami Yanomami or are hunters and farmers Indians who inhabit Brazil and Venezuela. It consists of four subgroups: Yanomae, Yanomami Sanima and Ninam. Each group speaks its own language: together they make up the Yanomami language family. The Yanomami tribe is the seventh largest Brazilian Indian tribe, with 15,000 people distributed in 255 villages related to each other to a greater or lesser degree. Northwest of Roraima, are situated 197 villages totaling 9506 people, and the north of the Amazon, are situated 58 villages totaling 6510 people.

-----

·      Otaku (  ?) Is a term used in Japan and other countries to describe fans of anime and manga. However, in Japan, the term can be used to describe a fan of anything in a large excess.

·      The word otaku in Japanese originally a respectful treatment in the second person ( ? Lit. his home), or "your house", a kind of pronoun most archaic Nipponese. This reference arose from the combination of the economic prosperity of Japan after the war, the intense relationship between consumption and media technologies and the appeal of the visual references of manga (comics) and anime (animation) .Otaku became assigned to people who spent a lot of time at home, consuming such a culture.

·      The humorist and columnist Akio Nakamori noted that the word was widely used among anime fans and popularized around 1989, when used in one of his books.


#NamesOther names or writingslinguistic familydemographic info
1AikanãMassacá, Tubarão, Columbiara, Mundé, Huari, AikanáAikaná
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO328Siasi/Sesai 2012
2AikewaraSuruí, Sororós, AikewaraTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA351Siasi/Sesai 2012
3AkuntsuAkunt'suTupari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO5Siasi/Sesai 2012
4AmanayêAmanaié, AraradeuaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA131Siasi/Sesai 2012
5AmondawaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO113Siasi/Sesai 2012
6AnacéAnacé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE1281Siasi/Sesai 2012
7AnambéTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA131Siasi/Sesai 2012
8AparaíApalai, Apalay, Appirois, Aparathy, Apareilles, AparaiKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA466Siasi/Sesai 2012
Guiana Francesa40Eliane Camargo 2011
Suriname10Eliane Camargo 2011
9ApiakáApiacáTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT. PA844Siasi/Sesai 2012
10ApinajéApinaié, Apinajés, Timbira, Apinayé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO2412Siasi/Sesai 2012
11ApurinãIpurina, PopukareAruak-maipure
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, MT,RO8300Siasi/Sesai 2012
12AranãAranã
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MG362Funasa 2010
13ArapasoArapasso, ArapaçoTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM414Siasi/Sesai 2012
14ArapiunsArapium
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
2204Siasi/Sesai 2012
15AraraArara do Pará, UkaragmaKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA363Siasi/Sesai 2012
16Arara da Volta Grande do XinguArara do Maia
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA110Siasi/Sesai 2012
17Arara do Rio AmôniaApolima-Arara, Arara Apolima
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC297Siasi/Sesai 2012
18Arara do Rio BrancoArara do Beiradão, Arara do Aripuanã
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT391Siasi/Sesai 2012
19Arara ShawãdawaArara do Acre, ShawanauaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC545Siasi/Sesai 2012
20ArawetéAraueté, BïdeTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA450Siasi/Sesai 2012
21ArikapúJabuti
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO34Siasi/Sesai 2012
22AruáMondé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO133Siasi/Sesai 2012
23AshaninkaKampa, AshenikaAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC1291Siasi/Sesai 2012
Peru97477INEI 2007
24Asurini do TocantinsAkuawa, AsuriniTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO516Siasi/Sesai 2012
25Asurini do XingúAssurini, AwaeteTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA165Siasi/Sesai 2012
26AtikumAticum
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE, BA7929Siasi/Sesai 2012
27Avá-CanoeiroCanoeiro, Cara-Preta, CarijóTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO, GO, MG25Siasi/Sedsi 2012
28AwetiAwytyza, Enumaniá, Anumaniá, AuetöAweti
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT195Ipeax 2011
29BakairiBacairi, Kurã, KurâKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT930Siasi/Sesai 2012
30BanawáArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM200Siasi/Sesai 2012
31BaniwaBaniva, Baniua, Curipaco, WalimanaiAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM6243Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia70002000
Venezuela2408INE 2001
32BaráBara tukano, WaípinõmakãTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM22Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia2961988
33BarasanaPanenoáTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM47Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia9391998
34BaréHaneraAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM10623Siasi/Sesai 2012
Venezuela2815INE 2001
35Borari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA
36BororoCoxiponé, Araripoconé, Araés, Cuiabá, Coroados, Porrudos, BoeBororo
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT1686Siasi/Sesai 2012
37Canela ApanyekráCanela, Timbira
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA1076Siasi/Sesai 2012
38Canela RamkokamekráCanela, Timbira
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA2175Siasi/Sesai 2012
39ChamacocoSamuko
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS40Grumberg 1994
Paraguai1515II Censo Nacional Indígena 2002
40Charrua
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Argentina676INDEC 2004
RS27Siasi/Sesai 2012
41ChiquitanoChiquitoChiquito
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Bolivia108206Censo Nacional 2001
MT473Siasi/Funasa 2012
42Cinta largaMatetamãeMondé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, RO1758Siasi/Sesai 2012
43CoripacoCuripaco, Curripaco, KuripakoAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1504Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia7827Arango e Sánchez 2004
Venezuela4925INEI 2001
44DeniJamamadiArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1394Siasi/Sesai 2012
45DesanaDesano, DessanoTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM2028Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia20361998
46DjeoromitxiJabotiJabuti
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO215Siasi/Sesai 2012
47DowMaku, Kamã, Nukak MakuMakú
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM110DSEI Alto Rio Negro 2013
48Enawenê-NawêEnauenê nauê, Salumã, Enawenê-nawêAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT641Siasi/Sesai 2012
49Fulni-ôIa-tê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE4687Siasi/Sesai 2012
50Galibi do OiapoqueGalibi, KalinãKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP82Siasi/Sesai 2012
Guiana Francesa3000OkaMag 2002
Suriname3000OkaMag 2002
Venezuela11150OkaMag 2002
51Galibi-MarwornoGalibi do Uaçá, AruáCreoulo
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP2377Siasi/Sesai 2001
52Gavião ParkatêjêGavião do Mãe Maria, Gavião do Oeste, Timbira, Parkatejê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA627Siasi/Sesai 2012
53Gavião PykopjêGavião do Maranhão, Gavião Pukobiê, Gavião do Leste, Timbira, Pykopcatejê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA740Siasi/Sesai 2012
54Guajá / Awa-GuajáAvá, AwáTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA365Siasi/Sesai 2012
55GuajajaraGuajajara, TeneteharaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA26040Siasi/Sesai 2012
56Guarani MbyaKaiowá, Mbya, ÑandevaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Argentina6500CTI/Grünberg 2008
Bolivia78359INE/Bolivia 2001
MS,SP,PR,RS,RJ,ES57923Siasi/Sesai 2012
Paraguai41200CTI/Grünberg 2008
57GuatóGuató
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS, MT374Siasi/Sesai 2012
58HixkaryanaHixkarianaKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA,AM1242Siasi/Sesai 2012
59HupdaMaku, MacuMakú
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1000Patricia 2012
Colombia500Patriciia 2012
60IkolenGavião de Rondônia, Gavião Ikolen, DigutMondé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO603Siasi/Sesai 2012
61IkpengTxicão, IkpengKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT454Siasi/Sesai 2012
62IngarikóAkawaio, KaponKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR1231Siasi/Sesai 2012
Guiana40001990
Venezuela7281992
63Iranxé MonokiIrantxe, ManokiIranxe
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT396Siasi/Sesai 2012
64JamamadiYamamadi, KanamantiArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM890Siasi?Sesai 2012
65JarawaraJarauaraArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM218Funasa 2010
66JavaéKarajá/Javaé, Itya MahãduKarajá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
GO, TO1456Funasa 2009
67Jenipapo-KanindéPayaku
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE302Funasa 2010
68JiahuiJahoi, Diarroi, Djarroi, Parintintin, Diahoi, Diahui, KagwaniwaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM97Funasa 2010
69JiripancóJeripancó, Geripancó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL2074Funasa 2010
70JumaYumaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO4Luciana França 2010
71Ka'aporUrubu Kaapor, KaaporTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA, PA991Funasa 2006
72KadiwéuKaduveo, Caduveo, Kadivéu, KadiveoGuaikuru
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS1346Funasa 2009
73KaiabiKawaiwete, Kayabi, Caiabi, Kaiaby, Kajabi, CajabiTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT2202Siasi/Sesai 2012
74Kaimbé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA710Funasa 2006
75KaingangGuayanás
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PR, RS, SC, SP33064Funasa 2009
76KaixanaCaixana
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM572Funasa 2010
77Kalabaça
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE221Funasa 2010
78KalankóCacalancó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL390Funasa 2009
79KalapaloKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT385Ipeax 2011
80KamayuráKamayuráTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT467Ipeax 2011
81Kamba
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS
82KambebaCambemba, OmaguáTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM780Funasa 2010
Peru3500Benedito Maciel 1994
83KambiwáCambiua
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE2954Funasa 2010
84KanamariCanamari, TukunaKatukina
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM3167Funasa 2010
85Kanindé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE714Funasa 2010
86KanoêCanoe, Kapixaná, KapixanãKanoe
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO282Siasi/Sesai 2012
87KantaruréCantaruré, Pankararu
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA340Funasa 2010
88KapinawaCapinawa
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE3702Funasa 2009
89KarajáCaraiauna, InyKarajá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
GO, MT, PA, TO3198Funasa 2010
90Karajá do NorteXambioá, Ixybiowa, Iraru Mahãndu, Karajá do NorteKarajá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO268Funasa 2010
91KarapanãMuteamasa, UkopinõpõnaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM63Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia4121988
92Karapotó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL2189Funasa 2006
93Karipuna de RondôniaAhé, Karipuna, AhéTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO28Funasa 2010
94Karipuna do AmapáCreoulo
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP2421Funasa 2010
95Kariri
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE118Funasa 2010
96Kariri-XokóCariri-xocóKariri-Xocó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL2311Funasa 2009
97KaritianaCaritiana, YjxaArikén
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO3202005
98KaroArara de Rondônia, Arara Karo, Arara Tupi, Ntogapíd, Ramaráma, Urukú, Urumí, I´târapRamarama
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO208Kanindé 2006
99Karuazu
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL1013Funasa 2010
100KassupáAikaná
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO210MPF em RO 2011
101KatuenayanaKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, PA, RR133Funasa 2010
102KatukinaTukunaKatukina do Rio Biá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM462Funasa 2010
103Katukina PanoPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC594Funasa 2010
104KaxarariCaxarariPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, RO318Funasa 2010
105KaxinawáCashinauá, Caxinauá, Huni Kuin, huni kuinPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC7535Funasa 2010
Peru2419INEI 2007
106Kaxixó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MG308Funasa 2010
107KaxuyanaCaxuiana, KatxuyanaKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA350João do Valle Kaxuyana 2009
108KayapóKaiapó, Caiapó, Gorotire, Mekrãgnoti, Kuben-Kran-Krên, Kôkraimôrô, Metyktire, Xikrin, Kararaô, Mebengokre
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, PA8638Funasa 2010
109KinikinauKinikinao, Kinikinawa, GuanáAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS250Souza 2005
110KiririKariri
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA2182Funasa 2010
111KisidjêSuyá, Kisidjê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT330Unifesp 2010
112Koiupanká
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL1263Funasa 2009
113KokamaCocama, KocamaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM9636Funasa 2010
Colombia2361988
Peru11370INEI 2007
114KoruboPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM27FPEVJ 2010
115KotiriaWananaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM735Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia11131988
116KrahôCraô, Kraô, Timbira, Mehin
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO2463Funasa 2010
117Krahô-Kanela
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO84Funasa 2010
118KrenakCrenaque, Crenac, Krenac, Botocudos, Aimorés, KrénKrenák
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, MG, SP350Funasa 2010
119KrenyêTimbira
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA
120KrepumkateyêTimbira
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA
121KrikatíKricati, Kricatijê, Põcatêjê, Timbira, Kricatijê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MA921Funasa 2010
122KubeoCubeo, Cobewa, Kubéwa, PamíwaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM489Siasi/Sesai 2012
Colombia42381988
Venezuela25INEI 2001
123KuikuroIpatse ótomo, Ahukugi ótomo, Lahatuá ótomoKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT522Ipeax 2011
124KujubimKuyubiTxapakura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO55Funasa 2006
125KulinaCulina, Madiha, MadijaArawa
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM5558Funasa 2010
Peru417INEI 2007
126Kulina PanoCulinaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM134Funasa 2010
127KuntanawaKontanawa, ContanawaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC400Pantoja 2008
128KuruayaXipáia-Kuruáia, KuruaiaMunduruku
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA159Funai/Altamira 2010
129KwazáCoaiá, KoaiáKoazá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO40Van der Voort 2008
130MakunaYeba-masãTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM32Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia528Colômbia 1988
131MakurapMacurapTupari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO478Funasa 2010
132MakuxiMacuxi, Macushi, PemonKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR29931Funasa 2010
Guiana9500Guiana 2001
Venezuela83INEI 2001
133ManchineriMachineri, YineAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Bolivia15Censo Nacional 2001
AC997Siasi/Sesai 2012
Peru90INEI 2007
134MaruboPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1705Funasa 2010
135MatipuKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT149Ipeax 2011
136MatisMushabo, Deshan MikitboPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM390Funasa 2010
137MatsésMayorunaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1592Funasa 2006
Peru1724INEI 2007
138MaxakaliMaxacalis, Monacó, Kumanuxú, Tikmuún, Kumanaxú - tikmu'únMaxakali
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MG1500Funasa 2010
139MehinakoMeinaco, Meinacu, MeinakuAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT254Ipeax 2011
140Menky ManokiMunku, Menku, Myky, ManokiIranxe
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT102Funasa 2010
141MiguelenoMiqueleno
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO2422010
142MiranhaMiranaBora
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM836Funasa 2006
Colombia445Colômbia 1988
143Mirity-tapuyaBuia-tapuyaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM75Dsei/Foirn 2005
144MundurukuMundurucu, Maytapu, Cara Preta, WuyjuyuMunduruku
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, MT, PA11630Funasa 2010
145MuraMura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM15713Funasa 2010
146NadöbMacú Nadob; Maku NadebMakú
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM
147NahukuáNafukwá, Nahkwá, Nafuquá, NahukwáKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT126Ipeax 2011
148NambikwaraNambiquara, AnunsuNambikwára
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, RO1950Funasa 2010
149NaruvotuKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT81Fiorini 2003
150NawaNáua
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC423Correia 2005
151NukiniNuquiniPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC622Funasa 2010
152OfaiéOfaié-XavanteOfayé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MS60Funasa 2010
153Oro WinOro Towati', Oroin, Uruin, Oro Win, Oro Towati'Txapakura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO73Funasa 2010
154PalikurParicuria, Paricores, Palincur, Parikurene, Parinkur-Iéne, Païkwené, PaïkwenéAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP1293Iepé 2010
Guiana Francesa720Passes 1994
155PanaráKreen-Akarore, Krenhakore, Krenakore, Índios Gigantes
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, PA437Funasa 2010
156Pankaiuká
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE
157Pankará
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE2558Funasa 2010
158Pancararé
Pancararé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA1640Funasa 2010
159Pankararu
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MG, PE, SP8477Funasa 2010
160PankaruPankararu-Salambaia
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA179Funasa 2006
161ParakanãTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA1266Funai/Altamira 2010
162ParesiPareci, Halíti, AritíAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, RO1955Siasi/Sesai 2012
163ParintintinCabahybaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM418Funasa 2010
164PatamonaIngarikó, KaponKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR128Funasa 2010
Guiana55001990
165PataxóPatachó, Patashó, PatasoPatxó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA, MG11833Funasa 2010
166Pataxó Hã-Hã-Hãe
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA2375Funasa 2010
167PaumariPamoariArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1559Funasa 2010
168Payayá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA
169Pipipã
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE1640Funasa 2006
170PirahãMura PirahãMura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM420Funasa 2010
171Pira-tapuyaPiratapuya, Piratapuyo, Piratuapuia, Pira-TapuyaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1433Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia4001988
172PitaguaryPotiguara, Pitaguari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE3793Funasa 2010
173Potiguara
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE, PB16095Funasa 2009
174Puroborá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO209Funasa 2010
175PuyanawaPoianauaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC540Funasa 2010
176RikbaktsáErigbaktsa, Canoeiros, Orelhas de Pau, RikbaktsáRikbaktsá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT1324Funasa 2010
177SakurabiatSakiriabar, Mequéns, SakurabiatTupari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO161Funasa 2010
178Sateré MawéSateré-MauéMawé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM10761Funasa 2010
179ShanenawaKatukina Shanenawa, ShanenawaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AC411Funasa 2010
180SirianoTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM71Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia6651988
181Surui PaiterPaiter, PaiterMondé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, RO1172Funasa 2010
182TabajaraTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE2982Funasa 2010
183TapayunaBeiço de pau, Suyá Novos, Suyá Ocidentais, Kajkwakratxi, Kajkwakratxi
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT160Ropkrãse Suiá e Teptanti Suiá 2010
184TapebaTapebano, Perna-de-pau
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE6600Funasa 2010
185TapirapéTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, TO655Funasa 2010
186TapuioTapuya, Tapuia
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
GO298Funai/Goiás Velho 2010
187TarianaAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM2067Funasa 2010
Colombia2051988
188TatuyoPamoa-masaTukano
189TaurepangTaulipang, Taurepangue, Taulipangue, PemonKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR673Funasa 2010
Venezuela27157INE 2001
190TembéTeneteharaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, PA1502Funasa 2010
191TenharimKagwahivaTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM703Funasa 2010
192TerenaAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT, MS, SP24776Funasa 2009
193TicunaTikuna, Tukuna, MagutaTikuna
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM36377Funasa 2009
Colombia8000Goulard, J. P. 2011
Peru6982INEI 2007
194Tingui Botó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL390Siasi/Sesai 2012
195TiriyóTirió, Trio, Tarona, Yawi, Pianokoto, Piano, Wü tarëno, Txukuyana, Ewarhuyana, AkuriyóKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP, PA1464Funasa 2010
Suriname1845Ellen-Rose Kambel 2006
196ToráTxapakura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM312Funasa 2006
197Tremembé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
CE2971Funasa 2010
198Truká
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA, PE3078Funasa 2009
199TrumaiTrumái
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT97Ipeax 2011
200Tsohom-dyapaTucano, Tukano, Tukún Djapá, Tukano Djapá, Txunhuân Djapá, Tsunhuam Djapa,Katukina
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM
201TukanoYe´pâ-masa, DaseaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM6241Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia63301988
Venezuela11INE 2001
202Tumbalalá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA1160Funasa 2010
203TunayanaKaríb
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA
204TupariTupari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO517Funasa 2010
205TupinambáTupinambáTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
BA4729Funasa 2009
206TupinikimTupiniquimTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
ES2630Funasa 2010
207Turiwara
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA
208Tuxá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL, BA, PE2142Funasa 2010
209TuyukaTuiucaTukano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM825Dsei/Foirn 2005
Colombia5701988
210UmutinaBarbados, OmotinaBororo
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT445Associação Indígena Umutina Otoparé 2009
211Uru-Eu-Wau-WauBocas-negras, Bocas-pretas, Cautários, Sotérios, Cabeça-vermelha, Urupain, Jupaú, Amondawa, Urupain, Parakuara, JurureísTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO115Funasa 2010
212Waimiri AtroariKinja, Kiña, Uaimiry, CrichanáKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM1515PWA 2011
213WaiwaiKaríb
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM, PA, RR2914Zea 2005
Guiana170Weparu Alemán 2006
214WajãpiWayapi, Wajapi, OiampiTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP,PA956Siasi/Funasa 2010
Guiana Francesa950Grenand 2009
215WajuruTupari
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO240Siasi/Sesai 2012
216WapixanaAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR7832Funasa 2010
Guiana6000Forte 1990
Venezuela17INE 2001
217WarekenaWerekenaAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM887Funasa 2010
Venezuela513INE 2001
218Wari'Uari, Wari, Pakaá NovaTxapakura
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RO2721Funasa 2006
219Wassu
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL1806Funasa 2010
220WaujaWauráAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT529Siasi/Sesai 2012
221WayanaUpurui, Roucouyen, Orkokoyana, Urucuiana, Urukuyana, Alucuyana, WayanaKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AP, PA304Funasa 2010
Guiana Francesa800Lopes 2002
Suriname500Lopes 2002
222WitotoUitotoWitoto
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM44Funasa 2010
Colombia59391988
Peru1864INEI 2007
223Xakriabá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MG9196Funasa 2010
224XavanteAkwe, A´uwe
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT15315Funasa 2010
225XerenteAcuen, Akwen, Akwê
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
TO3017Funasa 2010
226Xetáhéta, chetá, setáTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PR86da Silva 2006
227XipayaXipáyaJuruna
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA84Funai/Altamira 2010
228XoklengAweikoma, Xokrén, Kaingang de Santa Catarina, Aweikoma-Kaingang, Laklanõ
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
SC1853Funasa 2010
229XokóChocó, Xocó
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
SE400Funasa 2010
230XukuruXucuruXukuru
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PE12139Funasa 2010
231Xukuru-KaririXucuru
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AL, BA2926Funasa 2010
232YaminawáIaminaua, JaminawaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Bolivia6301997
AC, AM1298Funasa 2010
Peru600INEI 2007
233YanomamiYanoama, Yanomani, IanomamiYanomami
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR, AM19338DSEI Yanomami - Sesai 2011
Venezuela160002009
234YawalapitiAruak
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT156Ipeax 2011
235YawanawáIauanauaPano
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
Bolivia6301993
AC541Funasa 2010
Peru3241993
236Ye'KuanaYecuana, Maiongong, So'toKarib
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
RR471Sesai 2011
Venezuela6523INE 2001
237YudjáYuruna, Sanumá, Juruna, YudjaJuruna
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT348Unifesp 2010
238YuhupdeMacu; Maku YuhúpMakú
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM
239Zo'éPoturuTupi-Guarani
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
PA256Cartagenes 2010
240ZoróPangyjejMondé
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
MT625Associação Povo Indígena Zoró Pangyjej 2010
241ZuruahãSuruwahá, Índios do CoxodoáArawá
UF / PaísPopulaçãoFonte/Ano
AM142Funasa 2010

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