|Toy Art of Oxalá, Oxum, Iansã, Exu Ogum, Xangô and Oxossi
THUS WAS BORN THE CANDOMBLÉ
Candomblé is a religion derived from the African animism based on the worship of the Orishas (viz.), Voduns (of the Bantus is the same voodoo cult in Haiti), and Nkisis (Kimbundu people from northern Angola) depending on the nation.
Cult of totemic and family origin is one of the African-Brazilian religions practiced in Brazil, by the ‘Povo Santo’ – (holy people in Portuguese), and also in other countries such as Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Different from as it happened in Africa, where these deities were worshiped in every nation independently; in Brazil the cult suffered a junction due to the importation of slaves. As they where grouped in the slave quarters called ‘Senzalas’ each man could be the janitor of a particular saint and they became known as ‘Babalorixá’ or ‘Pai de Santos’.
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As in horoscopes, all people have orishas that govern their lives; Órixás de cabeça’ the fundamental individual orisha, the basic energy, and Orisha 'Ajuntó' with more subtle features, which softens the character of the head orisha.
To understand more how Candomblé is seen in Brazil get to know the Yoruba legend (Nigério-Congolese people) that explains the birth of the orishas and Candomblé itself:
In the beginning there was no separation between Orum, Heaven of deities, and the Aiê, the Earth of humans.
Men and gods came and went, cohabiting and sharing their lives and adventures.
It is said that when they were separating Orum from Aiê, a human touched Orum with his dirty hands.
The sky's immaculate Orisha out soiled.
The pristine white of Obatala was lost.
Oxala went to complain about it to Olorun.
|Toy Art - Olorum Orisha Suprime God
Olorum, also known as Olodumaré, Lord of Heaven, Supreme God, angry at the dirt, waste and carelessness of mortals, enraged his divine breath and forever separated Heaven from Earth blew.
Thus, Orum separated from the world of men, and no man could go to Orum and return from there alive. And the deities also could not come to earth with their bodies. Now there was the world of men and the the world of the orishas, separated. Isolated from the human inhabitants of the Aiê, the deities saddened.
Deities missed the adventures among humans and became sad and grumpy.
They went to complain about it to Olorum, who consented to the deities the right to occasionally return to Earth.
To do so, however, the deities would have to take the material body of his devotees.
It was the condition imposed by Olorum.
Oshun, who used to like to come to earth to play with women, sharing with them his beauty and vanity by teaching them spells seduction adorable and irresistible charm, received from Olorum a new commission:
Mortals was prepared to receive the orishas in their bodies.
Oshun made offerings to Eshu in order to appropriate its delicate mission.
Her success depended only on the happiness of their brothers and friends orishas.
The ori, or the head, she adorned with feather of ecodidé, a rare and mysterious red plume of the parrot-the-coast. At the hands she wore abebés, swords, scepters, and on wrists, she put dozens of golden Indes.
The neck was covered with twists and turns of colorful beads and multiple strings of shells, corals and ceramics.
On her head she put a cone made of butter of Ori, fine herbs and obi chewed, with all the condiment needed to please the orishas.
This oxo would attract the orisha to the initiate’s ori and had no way fool himself into his return to the Aiê.
Finally small wives were made, were ready, and were Odara.
The iaôs were the most beautiful brides, far better than the all vanity of Oshun could imagine. They were ready for the gods.
The orishas now had theirs so called ‘horses’, they could safely return to the Aiê, and are now able to ride the body of the devotes.
Humans made offerings to orishas, inviting them to Earth, to the bodies of the iaôs.
Then the orishas came and took their horses.
And while men played their drums, vibrate their batás and agogôs, sounded their xequerês and adjás, while the men chanted and cheered and clapped, inviting all humans initiated to wheel of xirê, the orishas danced and danced and danced.
The orishas are now able to live with mortals.
The orishas are happy happy.
At the wheel, and in the body of the iaôs,
They danced and danced and danced.
Candomblé was then invented.
In Yoruba mythology, is mention more than 600 primary orishas, divided into two different classes, approximately 400 of the Irun from Orun Imolé ("Heaven") and 200 Igbá Imole of Aiye ("Earth").
These groups are also divided into the Orishas funfun (Orishas tha wears white as Orunmila and Oxalá), and the Orishas Dudu (black or other colors wearing Orishas, sucha as Obaluayê and Shango).
Learn a bit more of the best-known orishas:
|Toy Art - Exu Orisha
It is the orisha of communication. It is the guardian of the villages, cities, homes and axé. The ESU in Yoruba word meaning "sphere" and, indeed, Eshu is the Orisha of movement (associated with the figure of Mercury or Hermes)
It is he who should receive the first offerings to ensure that everything runs smoothly and to ensure that their messenger function between Aiye and Orun, is fully realized.
The greetings are Exu - Exu LAROYE! (Yoruba) or even Exú is mojuba!
"Salutation to friend Exú "; Moju (night living) bah (arm ambush) - "Exú enjoy night life, always able to lay ambushes.";
|Toy Art - Ogun Orisha
The Lord of the metals, Ogun forged his own tools, both for hunting and for agriculture, and for war.
He was the eldest son of Oduduwa and Obatala , the primordial couple and the propellant of creation, the founders of Ife, the ancient Yoruba city in southwest Nigeria where it is attributed the birth of the legend of Candomblé.
Associated with St. George and the Ares or Mars
Salutation to Ogun are - Ogun Patakori! (Yoruba) or even Ogunhê! (cry that represents the strength of Ogun) Pataki (main), ori (head) - Much honor of having the most important dignitary of the Supreme Being in my head!;
|Toy Art - Oxalá Orisha
It is the Orisha associated with the creation of the world and mankind. It is presented in two ways: the young (called Oxaguian identified in the odu game merindilogun ejionile) and the elder (Oxalufan called and identified by odu Òfún and ejiokô).
Oxaguiam color is white lightly mixed with blue; Oxalufam is only white. Friday is the day devoted to both.
His greeting is EPA Baba!
Oxalá is worshiped and is considered the biggest and most respected of all Orishas of African pantheon. He symbolizes peace, He is the biggest father of the nations of African tradition. He is quiet, serene, peacemaker, the creator and therefore is respected by all Orishas and all nations. Oxalá is the one that has the eyes that see everything;
|Toy Art - Oshun Orisha
In Yoruba religion, is a female Orisha who reigns over the freshwater rivers, love, intimacy, beauty, wealth and diplomacy. In Candomblé. Oshun owns gold and ijexá nation.
Her name derives from the Osun River, which flows in Yorubaland, Nigerian region ijexá and Ijebu.
In african-Brazilian religions is syncretized with various Madonnas. In Bahiashe is regarded as Nossa Senhora das Candeias or Our Lady of Joy. In Southern Brazil, is often syncretized with Our Lady of Conception, while the Brazilian Midwest and Southeast is associated either to the name of Our Lady of Concieção from Aparecida;
|Toy Art - Oxossi Orisha
It is the orisha of hunting and plenty. Pierre Verger, in his book Orishas, says the cult of Oxóssi was virtually extinct in the region of Ketu, in Yorubaland, since most of its priests were enslaved and were forcibly sent to the New World or killed.
Those who remained in Ketu stopped worshiping him for not remembering how to perform the rites more appropriate or pass to worship other deities.
Greetings from Oxossi are - Okê rim! (Yoruba)
Okê (lot); Aro (honorable title given to hunters) - Save the great hunter!;
|Toy Art - Shangô Orisha
In his divine aspect, remains Oranian son, deified but having Yemanjá as a mother and three deities as wives: Oya, Oshun and Oba.
It was he who created the cult of Egungun, whereupon he the only Orisha who exercises power over the dead.
Xango is virile and righteous; punishes liars, thieves and criminals. His tool is oxe: the double-edged ax. Shango is the Orisha of power, it is the representation of the maximum power Olorun
To greet Shango one should say - Kawo Kabiecile! (Yoruba)
Ka (let us) WO (look); Biye Ka itself (His Royal Highness), le (the complement of a chief compliance) - Let us look to Your Royal Highness!;
|Toy Art - Iansã Orisha
Devotees usually offer her favorite food, the Akara (acarajé), and ekuru abará.
In Candomblé the color used to represent it is brown, although it is more identified with the pink color or the golden. In Brazil there was a major distortion about their origins and regencies.
Inhansã or Oiá, as she is also known in Brazil, is a deity of the Yoruba mythology associated with wind and water, being the wife of Shango, lord of lightning and thunderstorms.
She is hailed as "Iya Mesan lorun" title on the commission received as guide of the dead.
In Salvador, Oya or Iansã is syncretized with Santa Barbara;
|Toy Art - Obaluayê Orisha
Obaluayê in Yoruba Obaluayê is translated as (king or lord of the Earth), Oba (king) Aiye (Earth), Obaluaiyê, Obaluaê, Xapanã, is also known as (Baba Igbona = father of warmth) god of smallpox and contagious diseases, he is symbolically linked to the world of the dead.
His emblem is the Xaxará (Sasara), sort of handmade scepter of ribs of palm straw, decorated with shells and beads, in which he captures people's houses negative energies, as well as "sweeps" diseases, impurities and supernatural evils.
To greet Obaluayê - Atoto! (Yoruba)
Atoto (Silence) - Silence! He is among us!
|Toy Art - Yemanjá Orisha
Iyemanjá, Yemanja, Yemaya, Iemoja, Yemanja or Yemoja is a female African orisha, whose name derives from the Yoruba expression Yeye omo Eja ("Mother whose children are fishes"), in Brazil, the orisha has a high popularity among followers of African-Brazilian religions and even by members of different religions.
On February 2nd in Salvador, occurs annually, the biggest party in the country in tribute to the "Queen of the Sea."
Yemanja is hailed as - Odô-fe-iaba! (Yoruba) or even Odô IA!
Odô (river), fe (beloved); iyàagba (lady) - Beloved Lady of the River (water)!
|Toy Art - Oxumare Orisha
His name means ‘rainbow snake’ in Nago, this Orisha represents the mobility and activity, and one of his functions is to direct the forces of the movement. He is the lord of everything that is elongated, the umbilical cord, snake, etc. Also represents wealth and fortune.
In Brazil his initiates wear Braja - long necklaces of shells, stuffed in a way to look like snake scales.
Salutation: Arroboboi Oxumarê!;
|Toy Art - Omulu Orisha
In Africa, he is considered with the his mother Nana, the Orisha of death.
Popcorn are popped in pots with beach sand heated to celebrate their relationship with Yemanja. The legend says that his mother Nana abandoned Omolu, very sick, in a river near the beach, because he was born with major deformities in the skin. Yemanja had a huge love for him, adopted him as a son and healed him of his diseases. Therefore, offerings are made to Omolu on the sandy beaches of the Brazilian coast.
Salutation: Atoto ajuberú, Omolú ke;
|Toy Art - Ibejis Children Orixas
Ibeji or Ìgbejì - are the children twin deity of life, protectors of twins in Yoruba mythology, in the game merindilogun they are identified by odu ejioko and Ika.
In Brazil there is a recurrent confusion between Ibeji and Erês, the word Erê (not to be confused with a child who is in Yoruba omodé) comes from the Yoruba, iré, which means "fun, amusement." Hence the expression Siré which means "play games". Clearly there is a relationship, but they are not the same entity. Twins are syncretized with the Catholic saints Cosmes and Damian.
They are known as Ibeji in the nation Ketu, or Nvunji in Angola and Congo, his conducting is linked to childhood.
Salutationis ‘Omi Beijada!’;