Sunday, September 4, 2022

Japanese Philosophies in Business

 But after all, what are the Japanese philosophies in business?


Japan became famous for showing train station workers pointing and talking to themselves, as if they were reciting some poem. In fact, it is shisa kanko (指差喚呼), a method in work safety to avoid mistakes, pointing out important indicators and verbally declaring your status.


The ‘Point and Calling’ method, as it is also called, is an active safety behavior that has been shown to reduce human error by nearly 85%, according to a research report by Japan Railways. Workers who completed a simple task without pointing and calling made 2.38 errors per 100 actions, while workers who practiced pointing and calling made only 0.38 errors per 100 actions.


A millenary culture, with a super-evolved job market, the Japanese people have always interacted with a multitude of philosophies outside their native boundaries, most prominently Chinese, Indian, Korean, and Western. So they have benefited from a rich trove of ideas and theories on which to draw in developing their own distinctive philosophical perspectives. 

As a result Japanese proffesionals have always been acutely attuned to the intimate relations among culture, ways of thinking, and philosophical worldviews.

In this article I summarize some of these philosophies and their proposals – who knows, you may be able to appropriate some of them to improve your professional functions:


- SHUKKIN NIPPO, Daily work log (出勤にぽ日報) - every morning, before work, the employee describes their routines and plans for the day, increasing focus and awareness of what has to be done;


- KAIZEN, continuous improvement (改善) - Kaizen is the word of Japanese origin that means change for the better, used to convey the notion of continuous improvement in life in general, be it personal, family, social and work;

It is a concept that refers to personal activities that, when repeated daily, continually improves itself. The concept involves all those who carry out some activity, from the CEO to the workers on the assembly line. Kaizen also applies to processes such as purchasing and logistics. It has been applied in health, psychotherapy, life coaching, government, banking, etc;


- IKIGAI, reason for living (生き甲斐) - Iki means 'life' or 'alive' in Japanese, while Gai means 'value' or 'benefit'. The combination of these terms means what gives meaning, value and purpose to your life;


- POKA-YOKE, mistake-proofing (ポカヨケ) - it is the philosophy that directs people to avoid (yokeru) errors (poka) or defects, preventing and/or correcting them, or calling attention to them as they occur, it is derived from POKA HO YOKERU (ポカを避ける).

A simple poka-yoke example is demonstrated when a driver of the car equipped with a manual gearbox must press on the clutch pedal (a process step, therefore a poka-yoke) prior to starting an automobile;

5S in the Japanese workplace


5S is a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: 

SEIRI, classifying (整理) - is sorting through all items in a location and removing all unnecessary items from the location;

SEITON, set in order (整頓) - is putting all necessary items in the optimal place for fulfilling their function in the workplace;

SEISO, shine (清掃) - Seiso is sweeping or cleaning and inspecting the workplace, tools and machinery on a regular basis;

SEIKETSU, standardize (清潔) - Seiketsu is to standardize the processes used to sort, order and clean the workplace, with the goal of establishing procedures and schedules to ensure the repetition of the first three ‘S’ practices.

and 

SHITSUKE, sustain/self-discipline (躾) -  is the developed processes by self-discipline of the workers. Also translates as "do without being told", with the goal of ensuring that the 5S approach is followed.



TENKO, Roll call (点呼) -

Before leaving for an external role - a delivery, for example, the employee must write on a form, details of his/her itinerary and immediately read that form aloud so that his/her boss hears, mentioning his/her full name, role, the safety rules and company policy on the task.

When returning from external service, the employee must do one more Tenko, by law this data must be kept for one year.


CHOREI, morning meeting (朝礼) - is a brief meeting that happens every morning before starting work, 10~15 minutes per day only. The main goal of Chorei is to try to make everyone in the Company feel more like a team. Most Japanese companies that do chorei usually have their employees share their vision, goals, or company motto every morning;


SENPAI & KOHAI (先輩), senior & (後輩) junior - represent an informal hierarchical interpersonal relationship found in business organizations, associations, clubs, and schools. The concept has its roots in Confucian teaching, but it has developed a distinguished Japanese style, ultimately becoming part of Japanese culture.

There is a relationship of mutual respect in which Senpai plays the role of mentor and initiates Kohai into working traditions.

Normally, at the end of the period, Kohai waits for Senpai to leave, and then leaves. However, when the one who withdraws before, he must say:

"Osaki ni shitsureishimasu (お先に失礼します)", translated as "excuse me, I'm going ahead/first".

So, then Sempai replies "Otsukaresama deshita (お疲れ様でした) translated as "thank you for your effort/work".


OIJI (お辞儀の種類) types of bow

Eshaku, keirei and saikeirei are the three typical categories of ojigi practiced in the business world in Japan. No matter which type is chosen, it is important to pay constant attention to one's muscles and posture:

Eshaku (会釈) is generally performed with a slight inclination of about 15° of one's upper torso, usually performed between colleagues with the same status;

Keirei (敬礼), is the most commonly used variation of ojigi in Japanese business, is performed with an inclination of about 30° of the upper body;

Saikeirei (最敬礼), which literally means "the most respectful gesture", is, as the name suggests, the ojigi that shows the uttermost respect towards the other party,  with an deeper inclination of one's upper body than keirei, typically somewhere from 45° to 70°. Additionally, as saikeirei is used only in grave situations, one is expected to stay still at the bowing position for a relatively long time to show one's respect and sincerity.


HANKO(判子)INKAN (印鑑), stamp -

 is a carved stamp that can be used in any situation where an individual, or an individual on behalf of a company, might otherwise use a signature or initials. Signing contracts, doing your banking (at a bank) or receiving a parcel are just three such cases. The necessity for a hanko and even the type of hanko may vary depending on the situation.

Although the Japanese government is (reportedly) phasing out the use of hanko in many situations, you should expect the seals to stick around for a good few years yet.

RADIO TAISO(ラジオ体操), Radio Calisthenics -

Japanese companies may have found a way to boost employee health and improve productivity, through morning exercises, a tradition that has taken hold in Japanese culture to foster better health and fitness. 

There is a morning exercise called “Rajio Taisou” or “Radio Exercise.” The radio comes on, employees gather together, and the exercise routine begins. It can be as short as three to four minutes, but the positive effects may continue throughout the day.Rajio Taiso (ラジオ体操) or Radio Calisthenics is a common routine of exercises broadcast on NHK radio every morning from 6:30.  The first broadcast took place in 1928,  since then, this tradition of Rajio (radio in Japanese) Taiso has been incorporated into a lot of Japanese people's morning routines.

The good part about this exercise program is that it's been designed for anyone at any age to do on their own, without any equipment required. Everyone from children to the elderly can join in, and there's even versions that you can do while seated.

These are the standard 13 motions in part one:


1.    Rotate and stretch your arms
Raise your arms up from forward, stretch your back and down your arms from your side;

2.    Cross and spread your arms while bending your legs up and down 
Swing your arms and bend your knees;

3.    Rotate your arms
Swing your arms in full circles to the outside then inside;

4.    Lean backward (chest out)
Spread your legs to the left, shoulder wide, and swing your arms then stretch your chest with an inward breath;

5.    Twist your body sideways.
Bend sideways with one arm up, over head, stretch your side from the right side twice, then the left side;

6.     Bend your body back and forth
Bend forward to touch the ground 3 times and bounce with hands on your waist and backbend;

7.    Twist your body from left to right
Swing your arms and twist your body, to left then to right;

8.    Stretch your arms up and down
Hands on your shoulders with your legs spread to the left, stretch up then down;

9.    Bend your body diagonally downwards and chest out
Bend at the waist for your right toe twice then up and open your arms, stretch your chest then  down for the left;

10. Rotate your whole body
Make a circle your upper body one way, then the other way;

11. Jump with both legs
Hop on both feet up 4 times, then spread and close your legs twice;

12. Spread your arms then bend and stretch your legs
Swing your arms while doing light squats;

13. Breathe deep while stretching both arms slowly
Control your breath, take deep breaths in and out with your arms going up and  down.



KAGAMI-BIRAKI (KAGAMI-NUKI) 鏡開き「鏡抜き」

When starting a new business, venture, project, or even a wedding in Japan, a ritual called Kagami Biraki is usually performed, a traditional ceremony in which barrels of sake are broken with a hammer and served on the 'masus' at a feast.


Originally this ceremony is based on the Kagami-mochi (鏡餅, literally "mirror rice cake" in Japanese), with which the Japanese decorate their altars during the New Year holidays. Kagami-mochi are round rice cakes, stacked in two layers, with ferns at the base, displayed during the New Year holidays on January 11th. People have the custom of making "Kagami-biraki", that is, breaking the mochi and eating the crushed pieces.


Whether it's a Mochi or the cap of a sake keg, both Kagami Biraki's have their strong connection to rice, the raw material of both sake and mochi, and thus have been considered sacred offerings to the gods since ancient times. The concept of receiving the power by drinking the sake after it is offered to the gods is pretty much the same as eating the pieces of mochi.

Still regarding the tradition of breaking the lid of sake kegs (called komo-daru) with a hammer at a party, it is worth noting that this comes from the fact that liquor stores used to call the top lid of a keg of sake kagami (mirror). Despite being popularly called 'kagami-biraki', the correct name for the event should be kagami-nuki (鏡抜き).

Thursday, August 25, 2022

The Tupis of Rugby

 
Luiz Pagano, playing rugby on the SPAC pitch - wearing the jersey of the Italian national team'19 - in rugby there is the after-match celebrations, fraternization between opposing teams that value friendships more than the final result of the game. During the game, the dispute is taken seriously, but at the end, we celebrate and toast together as lovers of the sport.

Would Abapuru, the most beautiful and expensive Brazilian work of art, be a cultural appropriation?

I already say that I don't think so – why!?  Because it is impossible to appropriate something that already is ours!!!


Recently Agostín Danza, CEO of the Brazilian Rugby Confederation, decided to change the nickname of the Brazilian Rugby Team from TUPIS to COBRAS, most likely influenced by a group of uninformed people who 'prohibited' the use of the Term Tupi for understanding that it was cultural appropriation.

Conflict Overview

Before we move on, let's understand more about it. Following a path contrary to that of the average Brazilian, I wasn't very interested in soccer, instead I was interested in Rugby (in Brazilian Portuguese, rúgbi, and in European Portuguese, râguebi), a sport inspired by Harpastum, practiced by the Romans in Antiquity. The name of the sport came from the school where it was created, the Rugby School, in Great Britain, it was the students of the school, with the help of others from Cambridge, who, between 1845 and 1848, drew up the first rules of the sport.

In Brazil, the sport appears in 1891, sort of along with football, when the Clube Brasileiro de Futebol Rugby was founded, organized by none other than Charles Miller, the "father" of Brazilian football.  

coat of arms of the Brazilian Rugby team - Os Tupis

As I grew up a lot in my adolescence (I’m almost 6’6), I found in swimming and high jump, which I practiced at SESI in Vila Leopoldina, as well in rugby, which I joined at the age of 14 at SPAC (São Paulo Athletic Club), my favorite sports.

Luiz Pagano, former SPAC rugby second row

All I know is that the love for international trade, the different countries in the world, as well as the love for Brazil, was always very present in training and games, which highly valued ethics and discipline.

MAORIS vs TUPIS

Known as All Blacks, the very competent New Zealand Rugby team usually scares opponents a lot with the Haka, a typical dance of the Maori people used, among other things, as a form of intimidation in the face of a dispute. The ritual is beautiful, strong and impressive, and in a way, the sport has thrown Maori culture out into the world through the Haka. 

Brazilian rugby team faces the haka of the all blacks of new zealand with Tupi posture

The Ka Mate, or Haka, which the All Blacks have practiced for over a century, was created in 1820 by the Maori chief Te Rauparaha. As the All Blacks website dedicated to the history of this dance explains, the song celebrates life over death, it was written after Te Rauparaha managed to escape from a rival tribe. Although the dance is not intimidating, its name, Ka Mate, means “is death”.

The first time it was performed before a rugby match, was in the 19th century, formed by a team of players of Maori origin on a tour of the United Kingdom in 1888. This team, the predecessor of the All Blacks, pioneered both the use of the haka before the match and the use of the classic black uniform that popularized it in Europe, however, it was the original All Blacks team that made rugby history with their 1905 tour.
After all, what is said in the All Blacks' Haka - Ka Mate, Ka Mate! (it's death 2x), Ka Ora, ka Ora! (it's 2x life), tenei te tangata (come here), puhuru huru nana nei i tiki mai (the hairy man who seeks the sun), whakawahiti (and who again), te ra! (makes it glow), A upane!, Ka upane! Whiti ra! Hi! (one step, another step and the sun shines! Hi!)

In 2018, when facing the Brazilian Tupis, an ancestral dispute took place, respectfully performed in a beautiful spectacle, by ancient cultures from opposite sides of the world.

Pene'ĩ, Tupi (gûé)!
Go fot it, Tupis!! (Lit. 'my friends')

-----

Drowning in work and the day-to-day routines, I ended up getting a little away from the news of the sport, but it was on November 10, 2018 that I was dazzled to see the fearsome Haka opposed to the posture of union of Brazilian indigenous people, The TUPIS.  It was magical! The love for the sport, for Brazil and our cultures had a ‘total reload’ in my heart.

Proud to see the game that received 35k spectators, (when I played, in the 80's and 90's I didn't even reach 500), the image of the New Zealander HAKA elegantly fought by our ANGAIPAVA TUPI doesn't get out of my mind.

After climbing positions in the world rankings in recent years, the Tupis will begin the 2023 Rugby World Cup Qualifiers. photo olimpiada do dia, Gilbert's official rugby ball with the Tupis coat of arms

Tupi was chosen by popular vote within the CBRu, defeating the arara (macaw) and sucuri (anaconda) by 47% of the votes in 2012, but seven years later the guys wanted to change the nickname – I immediately went to the battle, writing the following text:

“I'm a rugby player, I'm Brazilian, I'm Tupi in spirit and I'm also Tupi in blood (however small a fraction), my grandmother's surname is Correia, as is Diogo Álvares Correia, Caramuru who married Paraguaçu on the 30th of July 1524.

LUIZ PAGANO (55) wearing Rugby Golden Oldies jersey - an event in 2018 that brought six sports to one location at the same time. Christchurch, New Zealand was the venue with more than 5000 over 35's competing in six different sports - rugby, hockey, netball, golf, cricket, and lawn bowls.

I love and am proud to see Tupi ritual in rugby matches, just like the New Zealand team.

For me, our players are and will always be called 'Tupis' and our players 'Yaras', no matter how fearful sponsors change the shield on our shirts.

I love this image of our Yara (affectionate nickname of our Women's Rugby Team) receiving the affectionate Brazilian ancestral painting.

I don't need to ask permission to be Brazilian;
I don't need to ask permission to be Tupi;
I don't need to ask permission to hold the Anhangá party in Vale do Anhangabaú or drink Cauim in São Paulo - traditions that, if it weren't for my efforts, would already be dead and buried along with the ancient peoples of the Inhapuambuçu of Piratininga (I am an active revivalist of Tupi culture, even the beverage Cauim, I recreated with modern production processes).

Especially because, here in São Paulo, the Tupis, formerly called Tupiniquim (Tupinakyîa) by their belligerent Tupinambá cousins, have been mixing since João Ramalho's marriage to Potira, back in the 1500s.

Finally, I study Tupi antigo (Old Tupi language), my grandmother was born in the Inhapuambuçu Historical Triangle, in the very town of São Paulo.
beautiful player of the feminin brazilian rugby team, kindly called 'Yara', receiving war paint by a genuine brazilian indigenous lady

Love unites us regardless of our beliefs, skin color, current account balances or malicious politicians.

I respect and love the Tupi Antigo, the Caboclo Tupi from the terreiros of Afro-Brazilian rituals, the nostalgic TV Tupi, the Tupi biscuit, the modernist Tupi verses of Oswald and Tarcila do Amaral, and all the other multiple Tupis that form our Brazilian cultural unity.

Outcome

I don't know if they came back for good, however I was super happy to see the players with the Tupis insignia on their chests, playing beautifully yesterday, led by the brave captain Paganini (almost my namesake) in a victorious game against Paraguay (yakarés) who played surprisingly well.

I'm sure that one day, I'd perform a Cauinage ritual (Tupi war ritual in which they drink the fermented manioc called Cauim) for my Rugbier friends to face the Maoris on an equal spiritual footing.

Saturday, August 6, 2022

CAUIM a Brazilian solution to preserve biomes enhance our cultures and create a thriving new economy

 
Luiz Pagano, creator of the industrial CAUIM, leaning against a century-old samaumeira on the island of Cumbu, Amazon rainforest

There is an unexplored Brazilian asset, with enormous economic potential, scalable, capable of becoming a strong agent of social change, with the power to praise Brazilian culture abroad and still promote a great strategic advantage in the preservation of Brazilian indigenous tribes and, consequently, our threatened biomes – THE CAUIM.


  It is important to say that CAUIM, a 100% fermented manioc drink, is produced in a large part of the Brazilian territory, by the more than 305 remaining ethnic groups and was probably produced by hundreds of others already extinct, millennia before the arrival of European settlers.

 Even today it is consumed as part of rituals, which differ among indigenous nations, belonging to ancient oral traditions, preserved by elders - this drink and all its cultural/religious context should in no way be reduced to an element of commerce - no that's what we're talking about here.

 I am referring to a commercially produced drink, whose salivary amylase, used in indigenous villages, was replaced by industrial processes, fruits of the work I have been doing, together with a small group of scholars, which gave rise to Cauim Tiakau.

HOW CAUIM CAN BE THAT AGENT OF TRANSFORMATION

 In Brazil, we face a harsh reality, the Amazon forest, the swamp, the cerrado, the Atlantic forest and other Brazilian biomes are in contoiuous threat, and have become the stage for national and international political disputes.

 Apart from political issues, there are several agents that corroborate this, such as prospectors, land grabbers, loggers, predatory farmers and invaders in general, who are motivated, violent agents and holders of financial resources, which allow them to afford good lawyers, lobbyists, and corrupt means to perpetuate their actions.

 Indigenous peoples, the great defenders of our forests, are naked and crudely exposed to this nightmare, they are at risk of being mercilessly decimated, in a desperate battle with almost no prospects of victory. To make matters worse, many villages opt for the oral tradition, so that these ethnic groups can disappear without even leaving a cultural record of their existence.

 You don't protect the forest or the ethnic groups, putting a dome over them, the idea is to strengthen the so-called preservation cells individually, through intellectual and monetary training.

 The external assistance provided by FUNAI, ICMBio, NGOs and other institutions is commendable, but still insufficient in the current scenario. The ideal would be to have robust and efficient preservation cells, in all social spheres, without losing its essence - Cauim perfectly fulfills this function.

 PRODUCTION AND FEASIBILITY COSTS

 As for the raw material, the only prerequisite is cassava, a basic raw material, which is produced in an indigenous village, with cassava planted in the middle of the forest through an agroforestry system, without trees being felled, so that it is not characterized as a monoculture.



 The production can be very small, at first, always in harmony with nature, without pesticides, so that its scarcity justifies a premium price, as with drinks produced in the Champagne region;
 
 The basic structure of a production unit is not different from the backyard micro breweries, quite common in recent years. For the production of 100 liters of Cauim, a cooking pot, a 100-liter tank and a chiller are needed, budgeted at approximately R$60,000.00;

 Glass bottles must be very characteristic and returnable, reverse logistics may be a mandatory point in production plants.

 At first we will have a business structure in São Paulo, at first, which may expand to other regions of Brazil - however, nothing prevents the business from growing organically, in a different region, according to the dynamics and needs of the investor / ethnicities adherents to the project.

 That said, I would like you to know that the first time I had success with the saccharification and fermentation of cassava, it was on a holiday of Our Lady, with my experiences in my studio.

 After that, coincidentally, I made great advances in the project on that same date in the following years, one of them at the Pernod Ricard de Rezende unit, close to the Sanctuary of Aparecida - So I suggest as patron saint for this project Nossa Senhora de Aparecdia.

 If you are interested in making this project possible, please contact me, @luizpagano or my partners in this endeavor, Hildo Sena and Cassio Cunha.
 
T'ereîkokatu ('cheers' in Old Tupi).

Friday, May 13, 2022

TUPI drink with Cauim and Mead

 



On this World Cocktail Day, May 13th - I created a drink 100% Brazilian, which unfortunately few, if any, can drink(…for now)


recipe
-1 shot of 100% cassava Cauim;
-1 shot of Dry Mead (Tukanaira) Melvin Seco;
- Decorated with Sateré Mawé Çapó guarana powder.

ISO GLASS
- ….
I baptize this drink with the name of TUPI.

——

I'm sure one of these days we can all unite and toast Brazilianness with Tupi

T'ereikokatu!!!!

*Cauim is a project by Luiz Pagano that aims to bring to the general public the oldest Brazilian beverage, 100% fermented manioc (a kind of cassava) called CAUIM

Thursday, November 4, 2021

Catholic Church Best Way to Learn International Business Lords Prayer Best Way to Learn Languages


The way that the Catholic church manage its business to elect a new pope and respond to scandals, has recently been analyzed in articles such as those written by Marcus Fisher for Fast Company, by bloggers Shumpeter to The Economist magazine, the journal of the Wharton EUniversity - Leadership and Change, etc. as seen in Lessons to be learned from oldest multinational company in the world - The Catholic Church

 If you are studding International Business and/or idioms, I strongly suggest that you go for records of this ancient institution, a multibillion-dollar empire, with annual revenues of US $ 182 Bi, with 1.200 billion customers.


It is especially good if you study linguistics, more than 1 million employees scattered in offices in 179 countries worldwide would provide you with the more accurate material on idioms and culture. 

I consider the Lord's Prayer to be the best existing tool for learning languages, for several reasons:

1- If you are the son of Catholics, and your mother taught you to pray from a young age, your brain received the first correct reference of an idiom, with perfect syntax, notions of pronunciation and intonation of voice;
2- If you learn a new language beggining by the Lord's Prayer, you will be repeating an old learning in a new language, making it familiar;
3- Repeating it over and over, you will be training muscles of your mouth, which you do not use in daily bases, speaking your native language.... among other reasons.


First the original version

It is difficult to know which words Jesus used, since he did not leave his gospel written on his own hand, however the evangelists Matthew (6:9-13) and Luke (11:2-4) left reports of what words Jesus may have used:

In both Gospels, the text makes it clear that Jesus is teaching a model of prayer so that his disciples could have a pattern for their daily devotions, whether individual or collective.

The first versions of these texts came to us in Greek:

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
Pater hêmôn ho en toes ouranoes; 

ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
hagiasthêtô to onoma sou; 

ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
hagiasthêtô to onoma sou; 

γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,
hagiasthêtô to onoma sou; 

ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·
hôs en ouranô, kae epi tês gês. 

τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
ton arton hêmôn ton epiousion dos hêmin sêmeron; 

καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν,
kae aphes hêmin ta opheilêmata hêmôn, 

ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
hôs kae hêmeis aphiemen toes opheiletaes hêmôn; 

καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,
kae mê eisenenkês hêmas eis peirasmon,

ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
alla rhysae hêmas apo tou ponerou. 

[Ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
ἀμήν.]
hoti sou estin hê basileia kae hê dynamis kae hê doxa eis tous aeônas; 
amên.

which soon afterwards was translated into Latin

PATER noster, 
qui es in caelis, 
sanctificetur nomen tuum. 
Adveniat regnum tuum. 
Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo et in terra. 
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie, 
et dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. 
Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, 
sed libera nos a malo. 
Amen.


Scholars try to rescue the Aramaic language, spoken at the time of Christ, as well as the alphabet used in Galilee until the year 100 AD

In Aramaic

Standard edition of Syriac text of Peshitta[b]
1. ܐܒ݂ܘܢ ܕ̇ܒ݂ܫܡܝܐ‎
(ʾăḇūn d-ḇa-šmayyā)
2. ܢܬ݂ܩܕ݁ܫ ܫܡܟ݂‎
(neṯqaddaš šmāḵ)
3. ܬ݁ܐܬ݂ܐ ܡܠܟ݁ܘܬ݂ܟ݂‎
(têṯē malkūṯāḵ)
4. ܢܗܘܐ ܨܒ݂ܝܢܟ݂ ܐܝܟ݁ܢܐ ܕ݂ܒ݂ܫܡܝܐ ܐܦ݂ ܒ݁ܐܪܥܐ‎
(nēhwē ṣeḇyānāḵ ʾaykannā ḏ-ḇa-šmayyā ʾāp̄ b-ʾarʿā)
5. ܗܒ݂ ܠܢ ܠܚܡܐ ܕ݂ܣܘܢܩܢܢ ܝܘܡܢܐ‎
(haḇ lan laḥmā ḏ-sūnqānan yawmānā)
6. ܘܫܒ݂ܘܩ ܠܢ ܚܘ̈ܒ݁ܝܢ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕ݂ܐܦ݂ ܚܢܢ ܫܒ݂ܩܢ ܠܚܝ̈ܒ݂ܝܢ‎
(wa-šḇoq lan ḥawbayn ʾaykannā ḏ-ʾāp̄ ḥnan šḇaqn l-ḥayyāḇayn)
7. ܘܠܐ ܬ݂ܥܠܢ ܠܢܣܝܘܢܐ ܐܠܐ ܦ݂ܨܢ ܡܢ ܒ݁ܝܫܐ‎
(w-lā ṯaʿlan l-nesyōnā ʾellā p̄aṣṣān men bīšā)

Abwûn d’bwaschmâya
Nethkâdasch schmuuch
Têtê— malkuthach
Nehwê tzevjânach 
Aikâna d’bwaschmâya’f b’arha
Hawvlân lachma d’sûnkanân yao-mâna
Wasbokân chaubên 
wachtahên aikâna daf chnân schvoqan l’chaijabên
Weyla tachlân l’nesjuna ela patzân min bischa
Metul dilachie malkutha wahaila
wateschbuchta l’ahlâm almîn.
Amên
In Hebrew

אבינו שבשמים יתקדש שמך
Avinu shebashamayim, yitkadesh shimkha,
תבוא מלכותך יעשה רצונך
Tavo malkhutkha, ye'aseh rtsonkha
כאשר בשמים: גם בארץ
kvashamayim ken ba'arets.
את לחם חוקנו: תן לנו היום
Et lekhem khukeynu ten lanu hayom,
ומחל לנו על: חובותינו כאשר מחלנו גם אנחנו לחיבנו
uslakh lanu al khateynu kfi shesolkhim gam anakhnu lakhotim lanu.
ואל תביאנו לידי נסיון
V'al tvi'eynu lidey nisayon
כי אם תחלצנו מן הרע
ki im khaltseynu min hara.
כי לך הממלכה והגבורה: אמן:
Ke lakha, hamamlakha, vehageverah, veha tiferet l’olemei ‘olamim. Amein.


So, here is “The Lord’s Prayer” in some different languages – enjoy it:

In English

Our Father, who art in heaven
Hallowed be thy name
Thy kingdom come
thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven
Give us this day our daily bread
And forgive us our trespasses
as we forgive those who trespass against us
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil
For thine is the kingdom, the power and the glory, for ever and ever
Amen

Japanese

天におられるわたしたちの父よ、
Ten ni orareru watashitachi no chichi yo 
 み名が聖とされますように。
Mina ga sei to saremasu you ni
  み国が来ますように。
Mikuni ga kimasu youni
  みこころが天に行われるとおり
Mikokoro ga ten ni okonawareru toori
  地にも行われますように。
chi nimo okonawaremasu youni
わたしたちの日ごとの糧を
Watashitachi no higoto no kate wo
  今日も お与えください。
kyou mo oatae kudasai
  わたしたちの罪をおゆるしください。
Watashitachi no tsumi wo yurushi kudasai
  わたしたちも人をゆるします。
Watashitachi mo hito wo yurushi masu
  わたしたちを誘惑におちいらせず、
Watashitachi wo yuuwaku ni ochiirasezu
  悪からお救いください。
Aku kara osukui kudasai

Portuguese

Pai nosso que estais nos céus,
Santificado seja o Vosso nome.
Venha a nós o Vosso Reino.
Seja feita a Vossa vontade,
Assim na Terra como no Céu.
O pão nosso de cada dia nos dai hoje.
Perdoai as nossas dívidas,
Assim como nós perdoamos os nossos devedores.
E não nos deixeis cair em tentação,
Mas livrai-nos do mal.
Amém.

Russian

Отче наш , сущий на небесах 
Otche nash , sushchiy na nebesakh
Да святится имя Твое ; 
Da svyatitsya imya Tvoye
Да придет Царствие Твое 
Da pridet Tsarstviye Tvoye
да будет воля Твоя и на земле как на небе ; 
da budet volya Tvoya i na zemle kak na nebe
Хлеб наш насущный дай нам на сей день ; 
Khleb nash nasushchnyy day nam na sey den'
И прости нам долги наши Как и мы прощаем должникам нашим , 
I prosti nam dolgi nashi Kak i my proshchayem dolzhnikam nashim
не введи нас в искушение , Но избавь нас от лукавого . 
ne vvedi nas v iskusheniye , No izbav' nas ot lukavogo
Ибо Твое есть Царство и сила и слава во веки . Аминь .
Ibo Tvoye yest' Tsarstvo i sila i slava vo veki . Amin'

French

Notre Père qui es aux cieux
Que ton Nom soit sanctifié
Que ton règne vienne,
Que ta volonté soit faite sur la terre comme au ciel.
Donne-nous aujourd’hui notre pain de ce jour;
Pardonne-nous nos offenses,
Comme nous pardonnons aussi à ceux qui nous ont offensés;
Et ne nous soumets pas à la tentation,
Mais délivre-nous du Mal.
 Car c’est à toi qu’appartiennent, le règne, la puissance et la gloire, pour les siècles des siècles. 
Amen.

German

Vater Unser im Himmel,
Geheiligt werde Dein Name,
Dein Reich komme,
Dein Wille geschehe,
wie im Himmel so auf Erden.
Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute.
Und vergib uns unsere Schuld,
wie auch wir vergeben
unseren Schuldigern.
Und führe uns nicht in Versuchung,
sondern erlöse uns von dem Bösen.
Denn Dein ist das Reich und die Kraft
und die Herrlichkeit in Ewigkeit.
Amen.

Monday, May 10, 2021

New Indigenous Acculturation Over Previous Portuguese Civilizatory Acculturation in Brazil

 

It is nothing new that the arrival of the Portuguese in Brazil, as well as the consequent colonization, put an end to several ancestral traditions of multiple indigenous nations that lived here, it is also nothing new that I am very interested in reliving part of this loss through the due valorization of these peoples culture, either through the study and rescue of Tupi Antigo, ancestral language linked to Nheengatu, Lingua Geral Brasileira and Paulistana, widely spoken in practically the entire Brazilian territory, until its prohibition on August 17, 1758, when the Portuguese language became the official language of Brazil, through a decree of the Marquis of Pombal; or either through rescuing Cauim, an alcoholic beverage obtained through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of manioc, produced in a ritualistic way by practically all native Brazilian cultures; that is to say, by the mere collection and availability of centralized information on the resistant ethnicities that still survive today.


It is clear that the lost cultures will never be rescued exactly as they were when they were overlapped by the Portuguese cultures, the losses were massive and irreparable, dramatically decimated - much of it was lost in oral traditions that would never be heard in their native languages, nor even in languages spoken today.

Another extremely important point to be well observed is that the development of Cauim as a beverage for recreational consumption, has nothing in common with the Cauim and Cauinágem, promoted and celebrated even today in the villages as part of elaborate ancient rituals. Cauinágem is performed in a ritualistic manner by multiple ethnic groups within the national territory, the beverage has several names, such as, Caxirí, Chicha, Saki, Makaloba, etc. they are produced mostly from saccharification of cassava by means of salivary amylase, and  rituals vary enormously from culture to culture, deserving the deepest respect and admiration.

‘Industrial Cauim’, on the other hand, has this name by definition of the Portuguese language, based on the Tupi Antigo idiom, is only obtained by modern industrial processes, originated from studies and experiences performed from the year 2000, until today, part of it conceived by Luiz Pagano, as a mere cultural vehicle for rescue, amidst the artistic movement called 'Tupi-Pop'.

At the 2016 Capivara Parade event, Luiz Pagano took an action based on the Cow Parade, with the purpose of making the city of Curitiba aware of the importance of having cities in full harmony with nature - The Capybaras arrive in the polluted rivers of the largest Brazilian cities to remind us that we must respect coexist with the environment

Cauinágem and Cauim must never be reduced to a mere recreational product called 'alcoholic drink of manioc fermentation'.

On the other hand, after years of experience working with French Alcoholic Beverages Producers, old traditional masters in transmitting culture through food and beverages, using elaborate harmonizations combined with amazing storytellings, Pagano realized that Industrial Cauim has the potential to be the perfect ambassador to ancient native traditions, an indelible vehicle for valuing cultures long neglected, ridiculed and treated with prejudice by a large part of Brazilians themselves.

To continue with this ambitious project, I bring here some theories about acculturation techniques that should be well studied and mastered, presented by the Association For Consumer Research  (https://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/11461/volumes/e01/E-01 )

The purpose of this article is to focus on how cultural environmental factors mediated through the individual may influence her or his consumption acculturation. In doing so, we will use the following approach. First, basic concepts that are needed to capture the phenomenon under investigation, i.e., consumer acculturation, and factors influencing this to occur, are discussed. Next, a perspective to guide our investigation emphasizing barriers and incentives to adapt the individual¦s consumption activities to the new cultural environment, deriving from differences between the culture of origin and the new cultural context, is developed. We then proceed by identifying elements from these cultural contexts, and discuss how they may exert influence on consumer acculturation stated as propositions.

The multidimensionality and complexity of culture have been described in many ways. Kroeber and Kluckhan (1952) in their seminal effort to define the concept stated that:

Conceptual artist Luiz Pagano created the Tupi-Pop style as a way to promote acculturation through art. On this site, he listed more than 240 ethnic groups to facilitate study in middle and elementary education - "we only protect what we love, and we only love what we know"
https://indigenasbrasileiros.blogspot.com/



CC, we think culture is a product; is historical; includes ideas, patterns, and values; is selective; is learned; is based on symbols; and is an abstraction from behavior and the products of behavior. CC All cultures are largely made up of overt, patterned way of behaving, feeling and reacting. But cultures likewise include a characteristic set of unstated promises and categories which vary greatly between societies (p. 157).

This quote reflects beliefs that culture is learned and shared with other people, and influences not only how one behaves, but also one expects other to behave. How culture best can be understood and how to explain the functioning of culture have, however, changed over the years. For example, many anthropologists now prefer the term "enacted" (instead of learned), which recognizes that people don't just passively accept culture, they actively create it (cf. Keesing 1974; Swidler 1986).

Swidler (1986) in her penetrating analysis sees culture as shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action" (p. 273). In order to act purposefully the individual needs both procedural and contextual knowledge, i.e. domain specific knowledge allowing for "contextual rationality" (March, 1978, p. 592) in addition to rules and procedures to exhibit "procedural rationality" (Simon 1978, p. 8). The acquisition of a repertoire of habits and skills as proposed by Swidler (1986) reflects the belief that relevant knowledge to exhibit intendedly rational behavior both may be learnedBor enactedBin a specific context, and that this knowledge may be (more or less) context bound.

Comics are perfect vehicles for acculturation among young adults - in this case, the hero Visconde Quaresma, serves Cauim (Heroes of Bruzundanga, volume 1 - Luiz Pagano)

Acculturation

Acculturation has been conceptualized in several ways in past research. Redfield et al. (1936), for example, define this concept as:

". . . those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns. . ." (p. 149).

In their Summer Seminar in 1954, the Social Research Council proposed the following definition:

". . . culture change that is initiated by the conjunction of two or more autonomous cultural systems. . ." (SSRC 1954, p. 974)

A closer look at the two definitions reveals that a prerequisite for acculturation is contact between two (or more) groups from different cultures. The first of the quoted definitions claims that "first-hand" contact is required for acculturation to take place. The SSRC's definition is broader, as it contends that

"Acculturation change may be the consequence of direct cultural transmission; it may be derived from noncultural causes, such as ecological or demographic modifications induced by an impinging culture;. . ." (p. 974)

It should also be noted that the term cultural contact often is used instead of acculturation, in order to emphasize that immigrant, don't just the host culture, they help to change it, i.e., the result of cultural contact is two-way influence (Furnham and Bochner, 1986).

Acculturation implies change(s). Culture is a complex phenomenon consisting of a variety of cultural elements. Various cultural elements are gradually learned, adopted or rejected (Berry, 1980). This is also reflected in previous research conceiving acculturation as a process. A new culture may be learned (and adopted to) more or less fully. When the new culture is learned to the extent that the newcomer is accepted as a genuine member of the new culture s/he is said to be assimilated. Even though acculturation may take place among both (all) groups with different cultural background encountering each other, the focus here will primarily be on individuals crossing borders, i.e., newcomers often facing the new situation as cultural minorities.

Consumer Behavior

Consumers and their behaviors represent an important arena for inquiry which has for long have attracted researchers from several disciplines. Several definitions of consumer behavior appear in the consumer behavior literature. The definitions offered vary in scope and width [Most of the definitions focus on the individual, emphasizing consumer behavior as decision making (e.g., Assael, 1984), and de-emphasizing the social aspect of this behavior (for an exception, see Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983). Moreover, it is not unfair to say that past research on consumer behavior has demonstrated a strong bias towards pre-purchase behavior (cf. Arndt, 1976).]. 

Consumer behavior can be conceived as a process, including acquisition (i.e., recognition of buying problems, search behavior, evaluations and execution of purchases), use and disposal of goods. Consumers seek product and services to satisfy specific needs.

According to Boyd and Levy (1962) consumers emphasize specific goals related to their consumption system. Thus consumers become buyers to obtain something; i.e., purchase (and use and disposal) of goods may be seen as means to reach specific consumption goals, whatever they are. Consumption activities including consumption goals and symbolic meaning of goods (Levy, 1981) are learned and shaped in a cultural context. An important aspect of the cultural context is the product/service environment in which the consumer is embedded. The individual is immensed in a cultural context over the whole life-span, so are her or his consumption activities. Through observation, imitation and interactions with socializing agents, individuals learn the culture brought up in and they become socialized as consumers (Moschis, 1984). Consumer acculturation refers to the subset of acculturation related to consumption activities.

A Perspective

Acculturation implies, as noted above, changes, so do consumer acculturation. Several authors have noted that such changes can be stressfull (Padilla, 1980, Furnham and Bochner, 1986). Changes are associated with efforts and may require new skills in order to be completed. In borrowing from the literature on strategy (e.g., Porter, 1980), individuals can be conceived as confronted with various barriers in making acculturation changes (cf. Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983, p. 508), as are firms when trying to enter new markets. When the individual enters a new culture s/he may be confronted with barriers due to lack of knowledge and skills, which may hamper consumer acculturation. There may as well exist factors that help immigrants resist acculturation (cf. Mehta and Belk, 1991). Type and "height" of these barriers, whatever they are, have implications for which aspects of the consumer behavior that will be changed, in what order, and the speed of changes that will take place when entering a new culture. Understanding of barriers faced by the consumer is thus of importance to grasp the phenomenon of consumer acculturation.

There may be various reasons for changing consumption behavior. To be accepted in a new cultural environment often requires adaptive behavior, as reflected in the old saying: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do!" Thus knowledge of incentives for change is important to understand consumer acculturation. Even though the market place is of crucial importance for consumption, or more correctly for acquisition of goods and services, consuming activities may take place in other settings, e.g., at home, alone, together with family, friends, colleagues, bosses and clients. Expectations to own consumption activities vary across social arenas, so may incentives to change such activities. Identification of incentives for acculturation, and under which conditions they are effective, is thus important for our understanding of consumer acculturation.

Culture includesBamong other thingsBlearned and shared symbols, values, attitudes, knowledge and behavior. Being immersed in a culture also implies being familiar with a specific product/service environment and social institutions, as well as having social relationships. The social relations are in fact important as information and norms are transmitted and learned through such relationships. To establish social relationships takes time and requires social skills. For the individual, social relationships are important and they are of great personal value. According to Coleman (1988), such relationships can be conceived as "social capital", and they represent an important part of the human capital as well. Crossing cultural borders imply that new social settings must be learned, and new social relationships created.

It is natural that indigenous people demand reparation for everything bad that Portuguese colonization has brought - but the proposal of acculturation is not about punishing colonizers, but rather promoting the valuation of indigenous ancestors, reverting the benefits to current indigenous causes. "We should never imput responsibility to the Portuguese of the new generation for crimes committed by their ancestors - respect and plurality are the basis of successful acculturation"

Opportunities and situations (see Belk, 1975) in new cultural settings may also influence the individual consumption acculturation. Consumer behavior and consumer acculturation may be conceived as "all cultural". The many cultural influences reflected in learned values, attitudes, knowledge, behavior and opportunities exposed toBare of utmost importance for the individual¦s consumption activities. The various barriers and incentives to consumer acculturation can be related to two cultures, i.e., the culture of origin and the new culture encountered . Based on the above discussion the following perspective can be introduced.

Figure 1 is to be read as follows. Barriers and incentives are hypothetical constructs. A variety of factors related to the culture of origin and the new culture encountered can be perceived as barriers and incentives for the individual in her or his consumer acculturation process, influencing the amount, aspects and speed of acculturation of consumption activities. Characteristics of the contact with the new culture, such as length, intensity, and quality may modify the effect of the various incentives and barriers.

Influencing Factors and Propositions

Our next step is to identify various classes of cultural related elements [Note the width of "cultural elements" encompassing cultural learned values, attitudes, knowledge, behavior as well as the context, including institutions, social settings and so on in which the individual is embedded, where her or his cultural learning is shaped.], and discuss how such elements mediated through the individual can be related to the hypothetical constructs and subsequent consumer acculturation. It should also be noted that it is the differences in culture that may lead to changes in prior learned culture elements and cause consumer acculturation. In the following, we proceed by first considering broader cultural issues, and then by focusing on more specific aspects and their relevance for consumer acculturation. The factors to be discussed are grouped as follows:

B Cultural characteristics; i.e., aspects characterizing cultures as a whole;

B Structural elements; i.e., more stable (permanent) aspects of the cultural context influencing the individual;

B Language and symbols; i.e., basic aspects of cultural learning;

B Cultural values; i.e., cultural learned beliefs which the individual find personally and socially worth striving for (see Rokeach, 1968);

B The social (cultural) context, in which socialization and consumer learning takes place.

B Roles and situations occurring in social cultural contexts assumed to influence consumption activities, and thus consumer acculturation;

B Some personal correlates, assumed to possess descriptive and predictive power for consumer acculturation.

FIGURE 1

Consumer Acculturation Perspective

1. Cultural Characteristics

Cultures are characterized and classified in several ways. We in no way intend to review this literature, but will restrict ourselves to consider the following aspects: cultural prestige (or rank order); cultural context (high vs. low); cultural distance; and cultural awareness.

a) Belonging to a specific culture gives identity. When confronted with other cultures, a rank order of the cultures may be established. Belonging to one culture may be perceived more attractive than being associated with the other. For examples, at the turn of the century it was observed among white immigrants e.g. from Scandinavia when coming to America, the land of hope, they did their utmost to hide their cultural origin. They never looked back, and tried as fast as possible to adapt to this new cultural environment. Thus, a positive gap in perceived attractiveness between the new culture and the culture of origin, may be considered as a force enhancing acculturation, leading to the following proposition:

P1: The more attractive the new cultural environment is perceived (compared with the culture of origin), the more rapidly will acculturation, and thus acculturation of consumption activities take place.

b) A crucial dimension of culture is the context of communication, (often dichotomized as "high" versus "low", Hall, 1976). In low cultural contexts, communication is more explicit, relying on explicit verbal communication and symbols. High cultural contexts in contrast depend more on non-verbal, "hidden" aspects of communication. Crossing cultural contexts represent changes, requiring tremendous amount of new knowledge in order to adapt. Our contention is that acculturation will take place more rapidly within similar contexts of communication, than across such contexts. On the other hand, it is believed that less strain is involved in moving from a high to a low cultural context is higher than the other way around. Thus it is postulated that:

P2: (a) Consumer acculturation will take place more rapidly within than across cultural contexts of communication.

(b) Consumer acculturation is more likely to occur when moving from high to low than will be the case when moving from low to high cultural contexts.

To our knowledge, no research has been conducted that directly examines these propositions. On the other hand, in business there seems to be considerable evidence that business people from high cultural context adapt more easily to low cultural environments (e.g., Japanese doing business in the U.S.), than do business people when moving from low to high cultural contexts (e.g., Americans dealing with Japan).

c) Several attempts have been made to scale cultures according to degree of similarity (or difference), i.e. cultural distance (e.g., Hofstede, 1984). Cultural distance reflects degree of difference. Intuitively it is so that the more similar, the less dramatic are the changes to absorb elements from a new culture. Thus we postulate that:

P3: The smaller the distance between the new culture and the culture of origin, the more likely and the more rapidly consumer acculturation will occur.

d) Viewed in a historical perspective, cultural awareness (pride) has been rapidly increasing the last few years among minorities and immigrants in the U.S., as well as other places around the world. For instance, a study conducted among Hispanics living in the U.S., showed that 89% strongly agreed with the statement, "We should pass on to our children a sense of belonging to our religions and national tradition" (Yankelovich, Skelly and White, 1981, p. 16).

It has for long been recognized that acculturated minorities retain specific elements of their culture of origin, which can be seen as a characteristic of the American 'melting pot'," or as recently stated by Iacocca (1984), ". . . Except to the American Indians, we're all immigrants or children of immigrants. So it's important that we go beyond the stereotypes we've lived with. . . . All the ethnic groups brought their culture, their music, their literature. They melted into the American pot - . . . but somehow they also managed to keep their cultures intact as each rubbed off on the other" (p. 356). Cultural awareness (pride) addresses that it is important to conserve specific elements from the culture of origin. With regard to consumer acculturation we will propose:

P4: The higher the cultural awareness (pride) is related to specific consumption related activities/elements, the higher the likelihood that these elements will be retained when encountering a new cultural context.

For example, food is important to man, and the symbolic meaning attributed to the preparing and consumption of food vary across culture (cf. Levi-Strauss, 1978). In many cultures food and eating-related events are attributed great importance, which is easily observed among immigrants Band children of immigrants Bsticking to the eating habits acquired in their cultures of origin, not only decades, but generations ago.

2. Structural Elements

Any culture contains a variety of structural elements, influencing the content of cultural learning. Here we will focus on two structural characteristics, the cultural product/service environment and the structure of channels of information (media).

A dinner promoted by SENAC in Campos do Jordão, Indigenous food was harmonized with Cauim - Luiz Pagano's acculturation proposal is regarded to celebration of science in a new Multi Ethnic Brazil - In the photo Hildo Sena, Creator of the Cauim Enzymatic Method, the Indigenous chef of the Terena ethnicity Kalymaracaya and Luiz Pagano, creator of Tupi-Pop culture and the Japanese Cauim Method "celebrating culture is better than imposing it with violence"

a) An important aspect of any culture is the product/service environment in which the consumer is embedded, influencing the individual¦s socialization as consumer (Grunhaug and Venkatesh, 1987). Moving to another culture often implies changes in the product/service environment for the individual. The consumer may be confronted with new, unknown goods, and many of the goods acquainted with, will not be there. The lack of known products and services may lead to more or less conscious search for and evaluation of substituting alternatives. Intuitively, the more important the no longer available products and services are, and the more attractive the substituting consumption alternatives (and/or consumption practice) are perceived to be, the more likely that they will be adopted. Hence, the following propositions:

P5: (a) The more important specific consumption alternatives adopted in the culture of origin and no longer available, the more willing the individual will be to search for, evaluate and adopt substituting consumption alternatives in the new cultural environment, and

(b) the more attractive new consumption alternatives are to the consumer, the more likely that these alternatives will be adopted.

The easily observable adjustment to the American product/service environment suggests that consumption alternatives are readily available, and that the alternatives are perceived as attractive, often superior to what the newcomers are used to (as it is often observed that even when products and services from the culture of origin are available, they are substituted with alternatives new to the newcomers).

It should also be noted that consumption alternatives may be acquired through different markets, such as "the open market" (i.e., commercialized markets) and "closed markets" (e.g., exchanges taking place between neighbors, Grunhaug and Dholakia, 1987). Open market exchanges (probably) represent a larger fraction of the total amount of exchanges made by consumers in developed than in developing countries. "Open" markets are easier to enter than "closed" markets, (but often other exchange media, i.e., money versus personal services/products are needed in order to operate in this market). Hence, we suggest that:

c) Consumer acculturation will be positively related to the relative occurrence of open market exchanges in the new culture confronted with.

This proposition also implies that consumption activities mediated through open market exchanges in the new cultural environment, will be adopted more rapidly than consumption activities mediated through non-open markets.

b) Information needed to learn a new cultural environment is mediated through information channels. The greater the exposure to and the more available is relevant information, the more rapidly acculturation will take place, thus:

P6: (a) The more exposure to and the more accessible is the relevant information, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will occur.

The media structure as such will be of importance as new information is spread more rapidly and to a larger public through mass media than through personal communication. This implies that in societies where relevant [By relevance it is meant that the newcomer has access to and is capable to make use of the media.] mass media plays an important role, changes will take place more rapidly compared to societies where mass media plays a less dominant role (cf. Zaltman and Wallendorf, 1983, chap. 5). Hence, we suggest that:

(b) The more dominant is mass media communication of the total communication in the new cultural environment, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will take place (given that the mass media are relevant to the newcomer).

From this (P6b) also follows that:

(c) Consumption activities exposed in mass media communication will be learned and acquired more rapidly than consumption activities primarily mediated through personal sources of communication.

When turning our attention to the American scene it is evident that the most attention is devoted to brands in mass media marketing communication, and less mass media exposure is devoted to use, disposal and emphasizing the social meaning of goods, which mainly is learned through experiences, observations and through personal communication with others. Thus we will hypothesize that:

(d) Knowledge of brand alternative and brand attributes is acquired more rapidly in a new culture, than is knowledge of use, disposal, and the symbolic meaning of products and services.

O'Guinn et al. (1986) also made the following interesting observation:

"Consumer acculturation via the mass media offers a safer way and less riskier path than direct contact. One doesn't have to worry about making embarrassing mistakes when one doesn't interact." (p. 582)

The perceived credibility of the various channels of information is an important modifying factor. As the perceived credibility of various sources of information may vary, it is proposed:

(e) The higher the perceived credibility of the source of communication, the more emphasis will be placed on this source.

From this proposion also follows that, the more credibility is attributed to mass media (in mass media dominated cultures), the more rapidly will consumer acculturation take place in such environments.

3. Language and Symbols

Cultural knowledge is mediated through symbols, such as signs, letters and words. Here we will focus on language and the symbolic meaning of consumption activities.

a) Languages represent the prime means of communication. To fully understand and have command over a language is a time consuming learning process. Moving to another culture with language(s) different from the language(s) being used in the culture of origin intuitively represents a barrier for acculturation to take place. Lack of language skills in the new cultural environment hampers access to new information and the learning of the new cultural context, thus:

Once the Cauim market exists and has matured through the correct process of acculturation, villages and indigenous reserves could benefit from the commercialization of their own Industrial Cauim - "the villages and reserves have been heavily attacked by illegal squatter (grileiros), miners, loggers and farmers - with the financial resources generated by the sale of Cauim, they would have an additional strength in this fight, increasingly unequal, hiring lawyers and even with the proper dissemination of their culture, supported by the work of sociologists and ambassadors of their own ethnicity ".

P7: (a) Consumer acculturation will occur more rapidly among newcomers with relevant language skills than among newcomers lacking such skills.

And among newcomers without the culture relevant language skills it follows that:

(b) The more rapidly relevant language skills are acquired, the more rapidly consumer acculturation will take place, (because language are institutionally linked with other acculturation activities).

b) Products and services convey symbolic meaning as noted by Levy (1959) in his recognized Harvard Business Review article three decades ago, "Symbols for Sale". Consumption activities convey symbolic meaning. The importance of symbolic meaning of activities and material goods to the individual has for long been recognizedBand researched in disciplines like social anthropology (e.g., Goffman, 1959; Mauss, 1967, 1925) and sociology (e.g., Veblen, 1899), but has until recently only been devoted modest attention in marketing and consumer behavior research (see Wallendorf and Arnold, 1988 for an excellent review of prior research efforts). The symbolic meaning of consumption activities is learned in social settings, and they vary across cultures. Much of this knowledge is "personal", acquired through observations, interactions and personal experience not easily conveyed to others (cf. Polanyi, 1958). Entering a new cultural context implies that much of the prior learned symbolic meaning of consumption activities will be obsolete. Due to the "personal" ("tacit") characteristic of such learning, it is assumed that:

P8: (a) The symbolic meaning of consumption activities is more difficult to acquire than is knowledge about brands and brand attributes.

It is believed that learning of the symbolic meaning of consumption activities, (which is an important aspect of consumer acculturation) will occur at a slower pace than will the familiarizing with and adoption of products in the new culture. Even though this proposition has not been directly tested in prior research, several studies reveal that various minorities groups attribute different values and meanings to consumption activities which is also reflected in the composition of their consumption patterns. From this also follows that:

(b) Learning of consumption symbolism will be positively related to degree of involvement in social consumption settings in the new culture.

This (P8b) is easily observable among immigrant families, where the youngsters, i.e., the most socially involved in the new culture, more rapidly recognize the symbolic aspects of consumption activities, than do the older family members. [The more rapid socialization among children, has also been recognized to lead to parental pressure on the child to be a "bridge" for the parents in the new culture (Endicott, 1984); i.e., what Reisman and Rosenborough (1955) have termed "reversed socialization."] It should, however, be noted as reported by Belk et al. (1980), that the ability to recognize the symbolic social aspects of consumption activities is minimal among preschoolers, but almost fully developed by sixth grade, i.e., probably the age when newcomers interact most easily and the most in a new cultural context, and when the importance of peers become most important (Coleman, 1961).

4. Cultural Values

An important aspect of any culture are the values held by the individuals embedded in the actual culture. Values are learned in cultural contexts; they are considered to be more stable than are attitudes and meanings. They can be changed, but only slowly. The individual holds several (many) values, all of which are not equally important to her or him, and they guide behavior (cf. Assael, 1984). Moreover, a considerable amount of research has demonstrated that values differ across cultures. Consumptions values are mirrored in consumption activities. For example, in a study on societal consumption, Fuat and Dholakia (1982) characterized the consumption values in developed Western countries as "passive, individualistic, private and alienated" (p. 12), contrasted with consumer values in other cultures emphasizing "activity, collectivity and togetherness". In returning to our point of departure, i.e. differences between the culture of origin and the new culture encountered, we propose that:

P9: (a) The more different are the consumption values in the culture of origin and the new culture, the lower the probability that changes in consumer values will take place, and

(b) the more important the value(s) aquired in the culture of origin is(are) to the newcomer, the lower the probability that consumer acculturation implying change of values will occur.

The strongly held value among groups of immigrants, "not to eat meat," apparently leads to the consequence that the majority of immigrants holding this value does not line up for a "Big Mac". In a similar vain consumption related values to fast at specific times, and not to drink alcohol strongly direct the consumption behavior of Muslims even in cultures where alcoholic beverages are flooding, socially accepted, and used in an almost ritualistic manner in a variety of social settings.

5. The Social Context

Values and norms are transmitted in social-cultural context. Extensive research has demonstrated the tremendous importance of family and peers in the socializing of individuals. Closeness and tightness of social relationships are important for social learning, enforcement and internalization of norms. The family has been noted to be the key agent of influence for Hispanics (cf. Guernica, 1982; Hoyer and Despande, 1982) and Japanese (Shigaki, 1983) living in the United States. The importance of family influences is probably higher in these cultures (Hispanic and Japaneses) than are the family influences in the American culture, indicating that traditional norms and values are more firmly held among Mexican and Japanese than among Americans. The importance of social relationships for consumer acculturation can be stated as follows:

P10: (a) The tighter the social structure in the country of origin, the more the learned values, norms, expectations and behavior will exert influence on the individual, leading to deterrence of acculturation being in conflict with prior learned consumption values, norms, expectations and behavior.

Often the newcomer (the immigrant) will meet members of his/her culture of origin in the new culture. For example, inspection of statistics of immigration shows that more than 18% of the 61,000 legal Mexican immigrants that came to the U.S. in 1985 settled in the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and San Diego, while only .7% of these immigrants went to New York. In contrast, almost 49% of the Jamaican immigrants settled in the New York area (Bureau of Census 1987, table 32). Meeting people from one's own culture will probably make immigration less stressful, but may influence consumer acculturation as well. Existence of a "critical mass" of members from the culture of origin in the new setting, implies that much of the previous learned values, norms and behavior are still valid, thus:

(b) Existence of a "critical mass" of members from the culture of origin in the new culture context decreases the probability of consumer acculturation to take place (for consumption activities different from those in the culture of origin where these are still held among the "critical mass" in the new culture).

The existence of immigrant communities in the U.S., such as Chinatown (in several cities) and Little Italy, where the languages of the immigrants are spoken and life is lived very much as it is in their homelands, clearly support this proposition. The following excerpt illustrates this point:

"Many of the Latino children tend to speak to each other in Spanish, while the Asian children speak English among themselves as often as their native language. That's because all the Hispanic children, whether they are from Mexico, Peru, Honduras or anywhere, can speak that one language, Spanish,' Blazey explained. `But the Asian children may come from Vietnam, or Cambodia, or another country, and every one of those countries has a different language. They have to speak English to communicate with one another. (Los Angeles Times, July 17, 1989, p.7)

6. Roles and Situations

a) The individual plays a variety of roles in everyday life (cf. Goffman, 1959). Role-playing (as on stage) is related to expectations and performance of activities. When moving into a new culture, new roles have to be learned, and the individual may meet new demands to prior learned roles as well. The learning of new roles and role demands will often have implications for consumer acculturation. For instance, getting a job in the new culture may require a new way of dressing, eating at different times and so on. We propose that:

P11: (a) New roles and role demands involving consumption activities will enforce consumer acculturation (related to these roles); and

(b) the more central this(these) role(s) is(are) to the newcomer, the more rapidly will the acculturation of role relevant consumption activities take place.

b) The importance of situational influences on consumer behavior has for long been recognized in consumer research (e.g., Belk, 1975). Consumption situations are multiple and can be classified in a variety of ways. Important situational aspects for consumer acculturation are related to the extent to which they occur in the presence of members of the new culture, and the social pressure to behave as expected in these situations (cf. Asch, 1953). From this follows:

P12: (a) Situations involving consumption activities in the presence of members of the new culture, will enforce the adoption (acculturation) of consumption activities in such situations, and

(b) such situational consumer acculturation will be positively related to the perceived importance of the situation and the perceived importance to conform.

The following excerpt from an interview with a Japanese manager illustrates elements of the above propositions:

". . . He quickly learned how to span the uncomfortable gap between Japanese and American society. . . . Katashiba goes by Ken and decorates his home Western-style. At home, his family speaks only Japanese and eats primarily rice and fish. . ." (USA Today, July 15, 1988, p. 2B).

7. Some Personal Correlates

Several personal factors have been examined in prior research on acculturation (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980) and consumer socialization (see Moschis, 1986 for an overview of findings). Here we will focus on motivation, learning (stock of knowledge), education, age and sex.

a) Motivation refers to the process of factors (motives) that influence people to act. There are several theories of motivation. McClelland's (1970) theory of social learned needs for achievement suggests, for instance;

P13: The higher the needs for achievement and affiliation, the higher the probability that acculturation of consumption activities will occur in new cultural contexts, and the more rapidly such acculturation will take place.

This proposition is consistent with the observation that immigrants with specific goals in mind, e.g., getting an education or making a business career, more quickly acquire relevant skills, such as language and business manners than do others.

b) The individual's learning capacity is of importance for consumer acculturation. An important aspect of learning is the stock of knowledge possessed by the individual. Previous research has demonstrated that immigrants' stock of knowledge and cultural learned behaviors from prior socialization, affect consumer acculturation, e.g. which goods and in what priority they are adopted, as reflected in their expenditures patterns (Reid, 1986). One explanation is that prior knowledge serves as a benchmark according to which the new consumption environment is compared, and that changes (i.e., acculturation) will occur according to perceived barriers (cost of change) and incentives to change as emphasized above (cf. Figure 1).

c) Education has been found to be a prime determinant of acculturation in prior research (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980). O'Guinn and Meyer (1983/84) also noted that Hispanic immigrants preferring Spanish language radio and TV, and speaking Spanish at home were lower in education compared to those (Hispanics) preferring English media and language. Education, per se, implies formal training emphasizing symbolic representation and problem solving. The educational process itself also represents an important source of socialization emphasizing openness, new concepts and change. Thus educational training makes the individual more capable and motivated for change, as repeatedly has been demonstrated in the literature on adoption of innovations (see Rogers, 1983). Thus we suggest that:

P14: Amount and speed of consumer acculturation will be positively correlated with level of formal education.

d) Prior studies on acculturation has shown that youngsters more rapidly adapt to new cultural environments (cf. Padilla, 1980; Berry, 1980). Why this is the case may be explained in a variety of ways. Chronological age is related to the amount and content of prior learning. In many societies, age is negatively related to education (when considering larger population segments, due to increasing rate of education the last decades), but may also be negatively related to opportunities to learn new cultures, and positively related to amount of contact with members of culture of origin. Age can thus be conceived as an indicator of several factors which may be related to acculturation to take place in new cultural settings.

e) Sex as a factor in the process of acculturation has to some extent been focused upon in prior research (see Padilla, 1980). A huge body of research has demonstrated that women and men are socialized into different roles; and that sex role expectations and learning of such roles vary across cultures (and social classes). Thus prior role expectations and learning, (which also may include formal education, as education is considered less appropriate for women than men in many cultures) and thus expectations and opportunities in the new culture, may attribute to differences in cultural acculturation across sexes.

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