Wednesday, April 5, 2023

Cauim Commercial Rediscovery of an Ancestral Brazilian Beverage


Allegorical Fountain - chewing cassava to break down starch into sugars - Ancient Tupi Aîpi o- suu suu I nomu - Luiz Pagano Tupi Pop

This article explores the process of market introduction and acculturation of the beverage category called 'Cauim', an ancient drink. The study suggests generalized ideas about what might and might not work for safe category introduction.

The Commercial Rediscovery of an Ancestral Beverage

What is Cauim?

Cauim is a traditional fermented beverage that has been produced and consumed by indigenous communities in different parts of Brazil for centuries. It is made from Mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a kind of Brazilian cassava also known as manioc or yucca) and typically has a low to moderate alcohol content.

The process of making Cauim involves fermenting cassava roots or cassava starch, which are first chewed or grated to break down the enzymes and convert the starches into sugars. The chewed or grated cassava is then mixed with water and left to ferment in large vessels, often made from clay or wood. During fermentation, natural yeasts present in the environment convert the sugars into alcohol, resulting in the production of Cauim.

Cauim holds great cultural and social significance for indigenous communities. It is an importat part of religious rituals, ceremonies, and social gatherings, serving as a symbol of community unity and ancestral traditions. Songs, dances, and storytelling, reinforcing the cultural and spiritual connections of the indigenous people with their land and heritage, often accompany the preparation and consumption of Cauim.

In recent years, due to Luiz Pagano and Hildo Sena efforts, Cauim has begin to gain attention beyond indigenous communities, with some efforts made to promote and commercialize the beverage to a wider audience. These initiatives aim to preserve and celebrate indigenous culture, while also providing economic opportunities for the communities involved in Cauim production. However, it is essential to approach the commercialization of Cauim with sensitivity and respect for indigenous traditions, ensuring that it is done in collaboration with the communities and in a way that preserves the cultural integrity of the beverage.



Important Notices

Respect for Brazilian Ancestors

Cauim is the generic name given to the fermented manioc alcoholic beverages, defined as such in several Portuguese language dictionaries, which should not be confused in any way with cauinágem, an ancestral ritual of Brazilian immaterial culture, pre-Columbian, still celebrated today in several villages, whose dynamics vary from ethnicity to ethnicity and deserve all our love, admiration and respect. We must never reduce this ritual and all its cultural context, of such importance and relevance, to a mere drink for recreational use.

Respect for this Alcoholic Beverage

Still considering the 1st point above, within my purpose of culturally rescuing the village of Inhapuambuçu, the village of São Paulo de Piratininga, Tupi Antigo (old Tupi language) and Cauim, I strongly suggest taking into account all the religious and cultural aspects involved in preparing the drink, using Tupi names for the processes and having due respect for the evocations of the goddess Mani, as suggested by indigenous consultants from different ethnic groups, who helped me in the development of the project.

Cauim Project, as the name implies, aims to recreate the oldest and most emblematic Brazilian alcoholic beverage, Cauim, in order to value Brazilian culture, especially indigenous ones, promoting its protagonism, with sustainable development of the communities involved in the process.

The project was conceived in 2006 and has been ongoing ever since.

1. Executive Summary

This work aims to address the promotion of the acculturation of Cauim, indigenous ancestral drink, with the objective of creating a new category of drinks and conquering consumers in Brazil and in the world.

The first part of the study will provide some basic information about production methods; give tips and guidance on how to promote this acculturation in a respectful way, preserving the authenticity and tradition of the ancestral drink. A collaborative format, similar to a wiki, will be proposed, allowing others to contribute their knowledge and enrich the project on a multiplicative scale.

The second part will outline our project implementation strategy, the steps and actions necessary to consolidate Cauim as a recognized and respected beverage category in the market. The business plan includes market research and analysis to identify target consumers, market trends and potential competitors. It also describes the production process, quality control measures and distribution channels for Cauim. In addition, this section highlights the financial aspects of the project, including cost estimation, revenue projections, and potential funding sources.

The aim is to provide a comprehensive and practical roadmap to successfully introduce Cauim to the market and build a sustainable business around this cultural beverage.

FIRST PART - Suggestion of Production Processes Introduction and Product Acculturation

1.1- Production

1.1.1 - The first is the ritualistic method performed in indigenous villages, which involves breaking starch into sugars using salivary amylase, 
this form of production is exclusively for ceremonial purposes and is not intended for commercial market, as this sort of Cauim is considered part of a sacred ritual;

1.1.2 - The second method is known as the Japanese method or  Pagano Method, named after Luiz Pagano. In which koji (Aspergillus oryzae), a fungus used in the production of SAKE and various other traditional Japanese beverages, is used to break down starch into sugars;

1.1.3 – The third method is the Sena method or enzymatic method, where the starch is broken down by laboratory enzymes. This method allows for precise control over the fermentation process and can be used to produce Cauim with specific characteristics.

Each method has its own unique characteristics and significance. The choice of method depends on the cultural/market context, available resources, and desired outcome.

1.2 - Who are we?

Hildo Sena and Luiz Pagano at the first presentation of Cauim Tiakau for beverage professionals at the BCB Bar Convent in São Paulo

Luiz Fernando Pagano Brundo

Consultor de empresas especializado em aculturação de produtos, com extensão em Marketing pela ESPM (2017), pós-graduação em Negócios Internacionais pela FGV-PEC (1992) e graduação em administração de empresas pela UNIFIEO (1990); com larga experiência na introdução de produtos no mercado brasileiro (Flash Power, Red Bull, Franziskaner Weiss Bier, Löwenbräu, Russian Vodka, Russkiy Razmer, Veda Waltz Boston, Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin); artista plástica, idealizadora de projetos de valor à cultura brasileira e ao meio ambiente (movimento artístico Tupi-Pop iniciado em 2010, TEMBIU 2015, ao lado dos chefs Tiago e Felipe Castanho, valorizando elementos da Amazônia em alta coquetelaria, e o Desfile Capivara 2016 em Curitiba , campanha de manifestação ecológica nos centros urbanos brasileiros);

- Pedido de Patente do Método Pagano
INPI BR10 2017 013711 2

O Cauim de Luiz Pagano

Producing Cauim is essentially a Brazilian job and an essentially Tupi job. It is much more about rescuing our roots than making the alcoholic beverage itself, this work reflects a journey of fascination through Brazil and being Brazilian, from a very young age I was captivated by the cultural and historical richness of this extraordinary country, since when I heard stories from Pará, Amazonas and Mato Grosso told by my great-uncles, with each passing year I tried to enrich even more my compendium of Brazilian aspects with the novelties that most enchanted me.

Instruments, artistic and religious objects that Luiz Pagano used to create Cauim Tiakau - Aware that commercially developing Cauim would be something of enormous importance, compared to the adoption of sake throughout the Japanese nation, intrinsically bringing the culture and religion represented in a drink, Luiz Pagano, when developing the Japanese method of producing Cauim, took into account not only science, but also art and spirituality.

As an artist, I created a personal art style that I call Tupi-Pop (which illustrates this post), in which I try to enhance our elements with a national passion, similar to the one that the Japanese cultivate in their own history, but it was through literature , mainly from the works of Lima Barreto, which I found a deep connection with the Brazilian identity. The book "Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma" (The decline and fall of Policarpo Quaresma. Tradução Francis K. Johnson - Brazilian Classics Collection. Kindle edition, 2014) had a remarkable impact on me to the point of creating a comic book entitled "Os Heróis da Bruzundanga" with characters created from his works.

I remember that I got so involved with the character of Quaresma that wanted Tupi as the national language, to the point of awakening in my heart the perception that we too should have a drink that represented us as powerfully as sake in Japan or tequila In Mexico. And so Cauim ended up being the essence I was looking for.

It is important to point out that, with all the respect and love that I have for the product, cachaça plays a part in this role, mainly because of Caiirinha, an essentially Brazilian drink that my great friend, Mestre Derivan, made so much effort to place as a Brazilian drink in IBA next to Rabo de Galo (brazilian drink  that satire with an English word ‘cocktail’).

But even so, cachaça does not have the potential to represent Brazil with as much authenticity as Cauim, since other drinks made from sugar cane are present around the world, a raw material that is not even from the Americas, Cauim made of the very Brazilian cassava, by our most ancient ancestors fulfills this role perfectly

I have been working for more than 30 years with the introduction of products on the market, many of which are beverages, I learned from the French school of beverage marketing that a dish paired with a drink is a way of introjecting the culture of a given geographic region, hence the importance of Denominations of Origin.

I feel immense gratitude for being able to contribute to the appreciation of our history and culture through Cauim. I realized that there is immense potential in our traditions and that they are often underestimated or even forgotten - so I decided it's time to change that.

Brazil is a nation of exciting and fascinating stories, but they don't always receive the attention they deserve, a good example is that we had our own "gold rush" with expeditions of flags even more daring than the American ones of Jack London, which deserved to have been told with the same enthusiasm and emotion, but unfortunately very few writers have given voice to our heroes to relate the unimaginable dramas and extraordinary adventures.

This project in my hands is the result of my passion for Brazil, my belief in the strength of culture and the importance of celebrating our history, it is ultimately an exciting journey that will lead us to discover the essence of our ancestral people, our identity and its connection with the past.

I hope that, by reading these pages, you will also become involved in this love for Brazil and our culture, and that you will help me to make this drink stick, that you will be inspired to value and celebrate all that we are and that, together, we can strengthen the ties that bind us together as a nation.

Hildo Costa de Sena 

Master in chemical engineering from UNICAMP (2011) and chemical engineer from the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil - UFS (2008); researcher in the area of Food Science and Technology with an emphasis on Postharvest Physiology and Beverage Technology, professor of higher education in the Higher Course of Technology in Biofuels at the Faculty of Technology (Fatec) of Araçatuba-SP administered by the State Center for Technological Education Paula Souza (CEETEPS) for the disciplines of Instrumental Analysis, Unit Operations, Fermentation Processes and Bioethanol Production; still master by CANA BRASIL (2016), researcher in the area of fermented-carbonated and fermented-distilled and/or rectified beverages; 

- Sena Method Patent Application
INPI BR10 2019 015534 5

1.3 - A Road Map for Introduction

As I said before, I'm not going to talk about my specific strategies here, the idea is to offer a 'road map' for anyone who wants to follow in my footsteps with their own strategy.

The study also investigates the motivations for reviving and promoting Cauim as a commercially available beverage to the general public. The importance of the market is examined, highlighting opportunities for Cauim in the beverage industry. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of cases of successes and failures is presented, extracting valuable lessons for the introduction of Cauim.

Subsequent chapters focus on marketing strategies, covering targeting, product positioning, communication, distribution, and pricing. The involvement of indigenous communities, holders of ancestral knowledge of the ritualistic consumption of Cauim, is discussed, emphasizing the importance of preservation and cultural collaboration. The work also discusses the importance of sustainability and social responsibility in the production of Cauim, considering the environmental impact and the reinvestment in indigenous culture. By studying these aspects, this research aims to provide a roadmap to successfully introduce and acculturate Cauim, ensuring its recognition as a culturally significant beverage in the Brazilian market.

Tupi Pop Art by Luiz Pagano

1.4 - The importance of the new category of alcoholic beverages ‘Cauim’

The introduction of a new beverage category, such as CAUIM, in the Brazilian and world markets can bring a series of significant benefits. These benefits encompass cultural, economic, social and environmental aspects, among others. Below, let's explore these benefits in detail:

1.4.1 - Cultural Diversity: The introduction of CAUIM in the market contributes to cultural diversity, promoting the preservation and appreciation of ancestral traditions. CAUIM is a beverage traditionally consumed by several indigenous cultures in Brazil, and its entry into the market expands the offer of beverages, providing consumers with a unique and enriching experience;

1.4.2- Valuing the Cultural Heritage: By introducing CAUIM to the market, the cultural heritage of the indigenous communities that have produced and consumed this drink for centuries is valued. This contributes to the recognition and respect for indigenous culture, helping to preserve their traditions and knowledge transmitted from generation to generation;

1.4.3 - Stimulus to the Local Economy: The introduction of CAUIM in the market boosts the local economy, benefiting the indigenous communities that produce the drink. The production and commercialization of CAUIM can create employment and income opportunities for these communities, generating a positive and sustainable economic impact.

A good example is the possible replacement of the use of sago in the Japanese method:

One of the points proposed in this article is the 'Wiki' effect, in which, when a process is presented to the general public, innovation grows exponentially according to the number of readers who try to redo the experiments, a good example of what can be improved is the use of the raw material of the Japanese Method (Pagano).

When I was in the process of developing the Japanese Method, I realized at the time that cassava could be an ideal substitute for the starch, lipid, protein, as well as other substances that make rice a chemically perfect substrate for koji, but my experiences with cassava in natura, as well as its starch, did not show satisfactory results because koji not only requires chemical similarities, but also specific morphological ones - the shape and texture of rice directly influence Koji's growth.

Realizing this in our experiments, I used cassava pearls (sagú / itaitinga beiju) as a more suitable substitute for rice and it worked well, but I recognize now that if anyone, from any other ethnicity/community who chooses to be from the State of Pará, can replace sago with Bragança water flour, especially if the producer makes an effort, in the production process, to try to obtain physical properties similar to those of rice when producing the flour.

Replacing cassava pearls (sagú / itaitinga beiju) with flour from Bragança, in the State of Pará, can generate enormous qualitative benefits for Cauim, as well as enormous commercial potential for valuing the beverage produced in that region

This would be an important step for Cauim, both in creating more advanced sensory properties and in increasing its commercial appeal, since in May 2021 the Farinha de Bragança de Caeté (mandioca / cassava flour from this specific region) received the title of Geographical Indication from the INPI, which generates a enormous commercial potential for valuing the Cauim produced in that region, greatly increasing the success of the Cauim acculturation process, before a more sophisticated public;

1.4.4 - Cultural Tourism: The presence of CAUIM in the market can attract tourists interested in experiencing the indigenous culture and tasting this traditional drink. This boosts cultural tourism, promoting visits to indigenous communities, sustainable tourism and appreciation of less explored tourist destinations.

1.4.5 - Innovation and Differentiation: The introduction of CAUIM as a new beverage category brings innovation and differentiation to the market. This provides consumers with a unique and authentic option, differentiating itself from conventional beverages and offering a distinct sensory experience;

1.4.6 - Environmental Responsibility: CAUIM, when produced in a traditional way, generally uses natural ingredients and sustainable processes. This can contribute to a more responsible approach towards the environment, encouraging sustainable production practices and the use of organic ingredients;

1.4.7 - Cultural Exchange: The introduction of CAUIM in the Brazilian and world market promotes cultural exchange, allowing people from different origins and nationalities to know and appreciate this traditional drink. This strengthens ties between cultures, encourages intercultural dialogue and promotes greater understanding and respect for diversity;

1.5 - The art to successfully produce and introduce Cauim

Although this text deals mainly with generic strategies and I have stated that I would not address individual experiences, I open a parenthesis here to talk about my artistic drivers, since, from an artistic point of view, the creative needs to be bombarded with references to create something robust. Interacting with these references and how the creative uses them are key to achieving creative results. Based on that, I would like to share some of my personal motivators and references, which served as the basis for my creation.

As for the production of Cauim, I did what everyone who wants to produce Cauim does, I cooked the cassava and chewed it, using my own salivary amylase, as is done in the villages. After that I explored some possibilities that didn't result in success until I understood the similarities with sake and researched koji and with that I created the Japanese method.

My biggest inspiration for the development of the Japanese method of producing cauim was George Washington Carver.

Doctor George Washington Carver was an American scientist, educator and inventor - Photo courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration. “I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting station, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in.”  With this speech, Dr. Carver demonstrates how we should proceed with our efforts to create Cauim, combining the discoveries of scientific knowledge in perfect harmony with all the spirituality involved in Cauim and Cauinagem.

George Washington Carver (Diamond, Missouri, 1864 or 1865 - Tuskegee, Alabama, January 5, 1943) was born during the time of slavery, he suffered a lot, but he never let himself be reduced by it. He was an American botanist, inventor, scientist, painter and agronomist (self-taught) who worked in the agricultural expanse of the southern United States of America.

He taught former slaves agricultural techniques for self-sufficiency and was known for suggesting hundreds of uses for peanuts. 

Among his many contributions, he created the 'Indigo' blue that we use in Jeans and pigments from several other plants aimed to increase the prosperity of the individual through agriculture.

Soy and peanuts was the object of Carver's great and pioneering research, which are still the basis of the American and world food industry. He was a pioneer in the application of substances derived from agriculture for the chemical industry, chemolurgy, as well as in research on soybeans transformed into plastic, used by Henry Ford in the automotive industry. His story and contributions profoundly influenced me in the search for a meticulous, innovative scientific approach without neglecting the human sensitivity linked to the spiritual side of the object of study.

Carver, like me, shared a burning desire to pursue his passion, painting. He had the habit of waking up before everyone else, around 4:00 am, and roaming the fields, believing that he managed to establish a connection with God during these times.

His hyper-interest in peanuts and cotton, as well as his detailed studies through careful observation and meticulous experimentation, resulted in the creation of a wide variety of products.

This dedication and perseverance by Carver was a powerful example for me as I sought to develop my own method for producing cauim.

As far as my personal historical drivers are concerned, an element of authenticity that drives my proposal to bring indigenous culture to the people of today is my Brazilian historical heritage. My grandmother, Dona Zuzú, Emília Correia de Moraes, was born and raised in the historic triangle of São Paulo, in the mansion on Rua da Glória number 4, a region that dates back to the ancient village of Inhapuambuçu, home to the iconic Morubixaba (clan leader) Tibiriçá, Padre Anchieta and Manoel from Nobrega, founders of the São Paulo city. I imagine that at some point, Tibiriçá invited João Ramalho to a cauinagem to celebrate and worship the spirit of Anhangá, in the Anhangabaú Valley.

Luiz Pagano with Grandma Zuzu (Emilia Francisca Correa de Moraes Pagano), who was born at Rua da Gloria #4, right in the middle of the Historic Triangle, descended from the oldest inhabitants of São Paulo de Piratininga (possibly from Tibiriçá), in the house of Dom Duarte Leopoldo n. 43, where the great uncles told stories about Brazil and the ancestors of Pará, Amazonas and Mato Grosso.

These historical and cultural elements come to life in my proposal for the acculturation of Cauim and in the artistic expression of Tupi pop. Along with the fact that the "Correa" in my surname goes back to Diogo Álvares Correa, Caramuru who, when he married Catarina Paraguaçú on July 30, 1524, celebrated the first union of love, Adam and Eve who formed the whole Brazilian people.

These points of authenticity connect me deeply with indigenous roots and inspire me to share this cultural heritage with people today.

This ancestral link with the region and the historical figures that inhabited it strengthens my determination to promote Cauim as a genuinely Brazilian drink and a symbol of the rich indigenous culture. These historical elements are an integral part of the history of Brazil and my history. In this way, it is my mission to bring them to the fore, valuing and disseminating this cultural heritage for present and future generations.

By recognizing the importance of these historical references and seeing them as sources of authenticity, I feel even more motivated to bring indigenous culture to today's peoples, through Cauim and the artistic expression of Tupi pop. It is a way of honoring the past, preserving our cultural identity and creating a lasting legacy that celebrates the richness and authenticity of Brazilian indigenous culture.

I fully understand that the work of Cauim acculturation goes beyond the limits of my lifetime, I recognize that the creation of this new category is a difficult and long journey, which needs to be continued and taken forward by other generations after me. In this sense, art plays a crucial role, as it is capable of transmitting the essence of Cauim and Tupi pop in an impactful and immediate way.

Through art, people's imagination can be captured, awaken their curiosity and engage them in a dialogue about Brazilian indigenous culture and the importance of Cauim. Art has the power to communicate beyond words, conveying emotions, stories and ideas in a visually appealing and emotionally engaging way.

By using art as a vehicle of expression, we can reach different audiences, awakening their interest and involvement with Cauim. It is through art that we can establish an initial connection with people, awakening in them their curiosity and the desire to explore this ancient drink and the indigenous culture that surrounds it more deeply. 

Life is Short, but Art is Long

If we really want to keep the Cauim project alive and evolving for generations to go and we don't know how to do it, well, the hint was given a long time ago by Hippocrates ( Ο βίος βραχύς, ἡ δὲ τέχνη μακρή." - Ιπποκράτης ), who actually did his extensive knowledge of the human body and the ethics behind medicine survive 2,400 years after his death.

Art has the ability to transcend the barriers of time, preserving and transmitting the essence of Cauim throughout generations. Through artistic creations, we can tell stories, transmit knowledge and preserve cultural memory, ensuring that Cauim's legacy is perpetuated for future generations.

Therefore, I recognize that the work of Cauim's acculturation must be carried forward by other generations, and art plays a fundamental role in this process. It is through artistic expression that we can impactfully communicate the essence of Cauim, awakening people's interest and connection with this ancestral drink and with the rich indigenous culture that surrounds it.

1.6 - The science to successfully introduce Cauim

Part 1.6.1 The Science of Marketing – 

Throughout the history of Brazil, there have been several attempts to reproduce Cauim, without the use of salivary amylase, and to offer it to the general public, but these attempts were never successful.

The question that arises is "why was Cauim never made available to the general public?"

The answer can be divided into two parts:

-The first is that there was no effort to acculturate and;

-The second is that Brazil's ethylic-culinary traditions are recent in history, although Pará and Salvador have their own style and São Paulo has gained international fame with several positive points in the Michelin Guide, the development of our gastronomy is still in the adolescence of the process of development. The same goes for drinks.

Ever since the colonizers had their first contact with Cauim, they tried to make it the drink of choice locally, but they rejected the idea because it was produced with the saliva of indigenous women, as reported by the creator of structuralist anthropology, Claude Lévi-Strauss in Tristes tropics , 1955 "of the manufacture of cauim fermented by the saliva of virgins... it continues, intermediate between beer and soup, and its tasting is accompanied by an instinctive repugnance".

Lery also tells in the 1578 Histoire d’un voyage faict en la terre du Brésil that the Portuguese tried to produce the so-called clean cauym, “grinding and cooking the cassava, without the chewing process; but it did not work”.

The fact is that the breakdown of starch into sugars, a very simple technology, has always been the great barrier, with unsuccessful attempts and almost always unsatisfactory results.

The first time I had the privilege of drinking Cauim, in ancestral rituals, I was very moved. I found freshness and unique flavors in the drink, which, in my opinion, characterize it as the Brazilian drink par excellence.

The second great pleasure came when we recreated the drink using modern production methods, almost 450 years after João Ramalho toasted with Tibiriçá at Inhapuambuçu, an emotion I will never forget.

In another intriguing episode, during a visit to Kyoto to buy Koji from a traditional company called Hishiroku Moyashi, I discovered that a Japanese descendant had tried to produce a specific type of Koji capable of breaking down cassava starch in the 1970s. The individual never returned, and the Cauim project, which could have started back there, was abruptly interrupted.

Finally now, after almost 450 years since it was taken into the family by Tibiriça and joão ramalho, cauim is resurrecting as a drink intended for consumption outside the limits of indigenous villages. Their dedication and innovation paved the way for cauim to be reintroduced to the general public, marking a significant milestone in its rebirth.

In other words, Cauim will never catch on commercially if it doesn't have a targeted acculturation effort, creating a new category and making them accepted by the general public.

French Scholl of Acculturation

French cultural marketers are recognized as the best when it comes to associating beverages such as wines and cognacs with food and promoting acculturation through elaborate storytelling, with great ability to delight consumers after gastronomic and alcoholic experiences, in a carefully created environment, in which every detail contributes to a great mental impact. A notable example is the case of Champagne wines, which were considered even unpalatable compared to their competitors in Bordeaux and Burgundy, but with the sudden appreciation for the sensation of bubbles (the "prisse de mousse") by English consumers, Dom Pérignon and Dom Ruinard, who realized the market potential in the 17th century, improved the production process and created all marketing around champagne.

As I had the opportunity to work with French people at Veuve Clicquot and Pernod Ricard for more than 10 years, I adopt methods of acculturation of French products and am inspired by provoking extraordinary experiences with the product, aiming to create an incredible imprint in the consumer's mind.

But first of all, what is 'Acculturation'?

Acculturation is a phenomenon that occurs when different cultures come into direct contact with each other, resulting in changes in the original cultural patterns of both. There are several definitions, such as the one proposed by Redfield. (1936):

"...those phenomena which result when groups of individuals with different cultures come into direct contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns..." (p. 149).

At its summer seminar in 1954, the Council for Social Research proposed the following definition:

"...cultural change that is initiated by the conjunction of two or more autonomous cultural systems..." (SSRC 1954, p. 974)

In the context of marketing, acculturation can be seen as a powerful resource for the presentation and subsequent acceptance of new products and services, taking into account cultural influences and adapting them to the needs and preferences of consumers, as denoted by Kroeber and Kluckhan (1952). ):

"...we think that culture is a product; it is historical; it includes ideas, standards and values; it is selective; it is learned; it is based on symbols; and it is an abstraction of behavior and products." All cultures are, to a large extent, made up of open and patterned ways of behaving, feeling, and reacting. But cultures also include a characteristic set of unspoken promises and categories that vary widely across societies (p. 157).

This quote reflects the beliefs that culture is learned and shared with others, and it influences not only how one person behaves, but also how one expects another to behave. The best way to understand culture and to explain how culture works and how it has changed over the years. For example, many anthropologists now prefer the term "enacted" (rather than learned), which recognizes that people not only passively accept culture but actively create it (cf. Keesing 1974; Swidler 1986).

Swidler (1986) in his penetrating analysis sees culture as shaping a repertoire or "toolkit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies for action" (p. 273). To act purposefully, the individual needs procedural and contextual knowledge, that is, domain-specific knowledge that allows for "contextual rationality" (March, 1978, p. 592), in addition to rules and procedures to exhibit "procedural rationality" (Simon 1978, p. 8). The acquisition of a repertoire of habits and skills, as proposed by Swidler (1986), reflects the belief that knowledge relevant to exhibiting intentionally rational behavior can be learned or performed in a specific context, and that this knowledge can be (more or less) limited by context.

Cauim is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of cassava, which was and still is ritualistically produced by several Brazilian indigenous cultures. In this sense, their cultural and historical significance is of extreme importance, and rescuing them for the general public must be done through a perfect acculturation approach, essential for their better readjustment.

A crucial aspect of acculturation is understanding the unique cultural elements of each of the ethnicities and adapting them in a respectful and authentic way. Among the more than 300 ethnic groups present throughout the national territory, it is natural that some of them opt for the commercialization of Cauim, recognizing the possibility of this drink based on the local tradition, functioning as a form of ethnic diffusion, bringing significant benefits to the village or community. . However, it is equally important to recognize that there will be those who consider it profanity for their ancestral ritual drink to become an object of consumption for the general public. In this context, it is fundamental to establish the concept of "opting" and "non-opting" villages/communities, respecting the autonomy of each community in relation to the Cauim Project and guaranteeing the preservation of the sacredness and authenticity of their traditions.

I know that I played a crucial role in the introduction of Cauim, my knowledge of Brazilian indigenous culture and my experience working with French alcoholic beverage producers provide a solid basis for adapting Cauim to the contemporary context. Its vision of cultural rescue and appreciation of indigenous traditions is an important guide for the development and promotion of the product.

Studying references such as the Association for Consumer Research (ACR), with their research on consumer acculturation, offers valuable insights into the environmental and cultural factors that influence consumer acculturation. This scientific approach provides a solid theoretical basis for understanding the barriers and incentives that may influence the adoption of cauim by the contemporary public.

Part 1.6.2 – Entry Timing

Determining whether a product or service introduction is at the RIGHT TIME seems to be the biggest challenge a marketer faces when introducing an innovation.

The Xerox Alto was created in 1972 at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). It had a significant impact on the design of PCs in the decades that followed, particularly the Macintosh and the first Sun workstations.

In the case of Xerox and Apple, we can say that Xerox was on the wrong track, while Apple was on the right track with regard to the development and commercialization of innovative technologies.

Xerox pioneered the development of several revolutionary technologies, such as the graphical user interface and the mouse, which are fundamental elements in the way we interact with computers today. However, Xerox was unable to adequately capitalize on these innovations, missing out on an opportunity to become a leader in the personal computer market.

Xerox did not fully realize the commercial potential of its innovations and failed to efficiently bring these technologies to market. This can be attributed to several factors, such as a lack of strategic vision, a conservative corporate culture, and an overemphasis on its traditional products, such as copiers.

Apple, founded by Steve Jobs, on the other hand, took a different approach. Jobs recognized the potential of the technologies developed by Xerox and had a vision of turning them into commercially viable products. Apple introduced the Macintosh, the first personal computer with a graphical user interface and a mouse, and it managed to attract a wide audience.

Apple managed to find the right timing when launching the Macintosh, taking advantage of the growing demand for personal computers and the need for a more user-friendly interface. In addition, Apple's marketing strategy, emphasizing user experience and innovation, also contributed to the company's success.

Therefore, it is fair to say that Xerox was on the wrong track in that it failed to adequately capitalize on its innovations, while Apple was on the right track in recognizing the potential of these technologies and bringing them to market effectively. This underscores the importance not only of developing innovations, but also of identifying the opportune moment for their commercialization.

While Xerox did develop innovative technologies such as the mouse and the graphical user interface (GUI) in the 1970s, there are several reasons why these technologies were not immediately commercially successful and why Apple subsequently did. with similar products nearly 20 years later. Here are some key factors: - Focus on the corporate market: Xerox, at the time, was a company focused mainly on the corporate and business market. Its innovations, like the Xerox Alto, were designed to meet the needs of offices and research labs. Commercializing these technologies for personal use was not a priority; - High cost: The first personal computers developed by Xerox, such as the Xerox Alto, were expensive and beyond the financial reach of most people. This limited its widespread adoption in the consumer market; - Limited Marketing: Xerox has not been able to effectively market its innovations to the general public. Its marketing and distribution strategy was more geared toward business customers, which contributed to a lack of awareness and interest among mainstream consumers; - Lack of Strategic Vision: Xerox, despite its technological innovations, has failed to fully recognize the commercial potential of these technologies for personal use. They did not adequately capitalize on their own creations and did not invest in developing products aimed at the large-scale consumer market; - Apple and the focus on design and user experience: Apple, on the other hand, when it launched the Macintosh in 1984, managed to combine technologies developed by Xerox with an attractive design and an intuitive user experience. The company had a strategic vision of making technology accessible and easy to use for the general public. In addition, Apple invested heavily in marketing and branding, building a strong image and attracting consumers.

These factors, combined with a host of other circumstances, led to Apple's success in the personal computer market and the widespread adoption of technologies such as the mouse and the GUI. It's important to remember that success in the market depends on a complex combination of factors, including not just the technology itself, but also marketing strategy, price, design, and user experience.

1.6.3 - Unexpected Acceptance & Rejection Factors

Comparing the RTD and Energy Drinks beverage categories reveals an interesting contrast in terms of market performance. While Sub Zero, despite high expectations and the backing of the famous Foster's brand, struggled and failed, Red Bull prospered even with less than high initial expectations.

One of the determining factors for Sub Zero's failure was the unpleasant taste of the product, which did not win consumer preference. As much as the brand invested in solid branding and held impressive launch parties, the cloying taste became a significant obstacle to its acceptance in the market.

With an alcoholic strength of 5.5 ABV, it was a crystal beer, without hops, with lemon-lime extract (Citrus/Lime) manufactured by the Australian Foster's and represented in Brazil by Madasa, a company in which Luiz Pagano was manager of the On Premise segment, As previously mentioned, in 1999, that same year Smirnoff launched a competitor to Smirnoff Mule, with vodka, ginger ale with lime/lemon flavor, which ended up not reaching Brazil strongly - both were flops...

In addition, the premature market entry of RTD alcoholic beverages also played a negative role. The market was not yet prepared for this type of product, and it was only years later, with the successful launch of Smirnoff Ice, that the category became popular.

Luiz Pagano was the first On Premise manager for Red Bull in Brazil, still imported by Madasa, which also introduced the pioneer RTD Sub Zero, an alcoholic beverage of 5.5% ABV, precursor to Smirnoff Ice and all other beverages in the category' Ice', brewed by Australian beer Foster

On the other hand, Red Bull succeeded even with modest initial expectations. The market quickly absorbed the energy drink category, and the product stood out for its innovative proposal. The brand identified an unmet consumer demand for a drink that provided energy and focus, and managed to position itself as a leader in this segment. The acceptance of Red Bull exceeded expectations, driven by its effectiveness and ability to connect with target audiences in an impactful and differentiated way.

This comparison between Sub Zero and Red Bull shows that, even with high expectations and a consolidated brand, a product can fail in the market if it does not meet consumer preferences, as happened with Sub Zero due to its cloying taste. On the other hand, even with modest expectations, an innovative product that identifies an unmet demand can achieve success, as demonstrated by Red Bull. Understanding the market and consumer preferences, combined with an effective branding and positioning strategy, are crucial to a product's success in the marketplace.

1.7 – ‘DOs & DON’Ts’

Promoting and popularizing the Cauim beverage category in Brazil requires a comprehensive marketing and awareness strategy. Here are some suggestions to help drive Cauim's success:

1.7.1 - What to do: - Education and dissemination: It is essential to educate the public about Cauim, its history, its production process and its cultural aspects. Organize events, lectures, workshops or tastings to introduce Cauim to people, highlighting its authenticity and cultural value; - Strategic partnerships: Look for collaborations with chefs, bars, restaurants and gastronomic events to promote Cauim as a drink option. Create combinations and harmonies with typical Brazilian dishes or partner with brands and influencers that can help increase Cauim's visibility; - Online presence: Invest in a strong online presence, creating a website or platform dedicated to Cauim. Share informative content, recipes, stories and testimonials about Cauim. Use social networks to engage the public, sharing photos, videos and experiences related to drinking; - Festivals and cultural events: Participate in festivals and cultural events related to gastronomy, craft beers or traditional drinks. These occasions are opportunities to reach a diverse audience and awaken interest in Cauim; - Collaboration with local producers: Establish partnerships with local cassava producers and other ingredients used in the production of Cauim. This collaboration can strengthen the supply chain, promote sustainable practices, and enhance the origin and quality of ingredients. - Development of attractive products and packaging: Create new variations or modern versions of Cauim to attract different consumer segments. Invest in attractive packaging with clear information about the product, highlighting its authenticity and connection with Brazilian culture. - Institutional partnerships and government support: Seek support from cultural institutions, government agencies and entities related to the food and beverage sector. Recognition and support from these institutions can add credibility to Cauim and open doors to promotion opportunities. - Creative marketing campaigns: Create creative and impactful marketing campaigns to get the public's attention. Use traditional and digital media, such as advertisements in magazines, radio, television and relevant online platforms, to publicize Cauim. - Participation in competitions and awards: Enter Cauim in competitions and awards for drinks or traditional products. These competitions can provide recognition and external validation, increasing Cauim's visibility and credibility. - Strong brand identity: Develop a solid brand identity for Cauim, with an attractive and memorable name, logo and design.

1.7.2 – What not to do:

In the process of introducing and acculturating Cauim, it is important to avoid certain mistakes that could jeopardize its acceptance and success in the market. Some errors that can be anticipated are: - Underestimating the market research: It is essential to carry out a comprehensive and detailed research on the target market before introducing Cauim. This includes understanding consumer preferences, identifying competitors, and assessing product viability. Skipping this step can lead to a lack of understanding of the market and result in inappropriate strategies; - Lack of cultural adaptation: The introduction of Cauim requires cultural sensitivity and respect for indigenous traditions. It is essential to understand the rituals, symbols and meanings associated with the drink and ensure that its introduction is done in an authentic and respectful way. Failure to adapt the product or its communication to the cultural context can lead to rejection or lack of interest on the part of consumers; - Consider competition as competition: It is healthy for the category that there are several competing brands, each with its particularity and flavor. The introduction of a new beverage category in the market implies the acceptance and growth of this category as a whole, not just individual and isolated brands.

A common mistake that occurs in introducing drinks, as has happened with some energy drink brands in the past, it is premature competitive behavior by companies. During the initial phase of the creation of a new beverage category, brands must come together to promote growth and acceptance as a whole, competition between brands should only begin when the category is mature.

To illustrate this idea, we can consider a consumer who visits a medieval restaurant for the first time and wants to try mead, an alcoholic beverage until then unknown to him. If that restaurante has any sort of exclusivity agreement with just one brand of mead and the customer doesn't like that particular brand, they may never want to try another brand of mead again and will end up opting for other beverage categories, such as beer or whiskey.

However, if that house offers different brands of mead, even if you don't like brands A, B, or C, there's a good chance you'll find a brand D that you like. This diversity of brands within the category provides a greater chance of success for the category as a whole. Therefore, it is essential that brands act collaboratively and cooperatively during the introduction phase, to ensure growth and market acceptance; - Not establishing strategic partnerships: The success of the introduction of Cauim can be boosted by strategic partnerships with influencers, local companies, cultural organizations or other relevant actors. Failure to pursue appropriate collaborations and partnerships can limit product reach and visibility; - Ignoring the right distribution channels: Choosing the right distribution channels is crucial to reach the target audience and ensure that Cauim is available in the right places. Ignoring or not adapting distribution channels according to market characteristics can make it difficult for consumers to access the product; - Not investing in marketing and consumer education: Cauim is a unique drink and may be unknown to many consumers. Failure to invest in proper marketing strategies, including awareness campaigns, consumer education and product promotion, may result in low demand and lack of understanding of Cauim's features and benefits; - Not considering regulation and compliance: It is essential to understand the regulations and legal requirements related to the introduction of a new product in the market, including labeling, registration and food safety issues. Not considering these issues may result in legal problems and difficulties in marketing cauim; – When you avoid these mistakes and anticipating the challenges can contribute to the successful introduction and acculturation of Cauim, allowing it to become a valued and appreciated beverage category in the Brazilian and world markets.

1.8 – Conclusion of the First Part

In conclusion, this brief manual on the introduction and acculturation of Cauim as a commercial beverage in Brazil gives the basic guidelines learned in recent years of the introduction of various alcoholic beverages to the market, representing a significant contribution to the history of Brazil.

Like the development of sake in Japan more than 2000 years ago and the creation of champagne by Dom Perrignon and Dom Ruinard in the 18th century, the introduction of cauim has the potential to transform Brazil's image in the world's alcohol scene.

These historic innovations demonstrate how the emergence of a new beverage can have a lasting impact on a country's culture, economy and image. By recognizing the importance of Cauim as an ancestral and authentically Brazilian drink, we are strengthening our cultural identity and expanding the boundaries of international appreciation and recognition.

This paper therefore becomes a document of extreme historical importance, just as sake in Japan and champagne in the Champagne region of France forever altered the way the world views these cultures.

Casirirena - piece that looks like a barge, used as a ritualistic vat for the fermentation of Caxiri (Cauim) with Tipiti, ancient Tupi Haguino - fermentation - Luiz Pagano - Tupi Pop

SECOND PART – My Strategies
In this second part of the paper, I will outline the strategies I have chosen to bring Cauim to the market. I believe that the companies involved should be organized into two formats:

The first format company will be a Proprietary Company - CAUIM TIAKAU whose scope of action would involve establishing a company dedicated to introducing and selling the Cauim category. This company would focus on marketing, distribution, and building brand awareness among consumers. Its primary goal would be to create demand and establish Cauim as a recognized and desirable beverage option.

The second format would involve partnering with indigenous villages and/or communities to establish CPU - Cauim Production Units. These units would be responsible for producing Cauim using traditional methods and ingredients. This approach aims to preserve the cultural heritage associated with Cauim production while also providing economic opportunities for the communities involved. By supporting local production, the goal is to ensure authenticity and quality while promoting sustainable and fair trade practices.

By combining these two formats, we can create a comprehensive approach that brings Cauim to the market while respecting its cultural roots and supporting indigenous communities. This dual approach allows for the commercialization of Cauim while also fostering social and economic development within the communities involved. 

2.1 - The Proprietary Company - CAUIM TIAKAU, established in São Paulo, close to the former Historic Triangle of Inhapuambuçú (region of formation of the Vila de São Paulo de Piratininga do Cacique Tibiriçá). This has already been carrying out sporadic works of acculturation of a new product, with the presentation of the drink to customers who generate consumption trends, through specific and strategic activations, which will reinforce the work carried out in the opting villages, opening up a new consumption market for the product ;

In summary, the Cauim Project is a way of disseminating the culture of ethnic groups and at the same time providing economic prosperity.

In a hypothetical scenario, idealizing the future, we could have a market with several options, such as the Cauim of the Yanomami, the Waurá, the Potiguara, the Emboaba, as an exponent of Cultural dissemination and, at the same time, meeting the needs of avid and demanding consumers of the gastronomic market.

2.1 Responsibilities of the Owner Company

The Proprietary Company - CAUIM TIAKAU is responsible for being the business hub of the Cauim production units, ensuring that production is economically viable and socially sustainable. The company's main function is to provide a market for the Cauim produced in the production units, which means that it is responsible for ensuring the distribution and sale of the product in local, national and international markets.

In addition, the Owner Company plans and executes marketing actions for the acculturation and market development of the new category of Cauim, in order to promote the drink's visibility and attract more consumers to try it. These actions include advertising campaigns, tasting events, promotions and other initiatives aimed at disseminating indigenous culture through Cauim, namely:

1.1.1 - As already mentioned, it will be responsible for being the business hub for the Cauim production units;
1.1.2 Provides a market for the Cauim produced in the production units;
1.1.3 Plans and executes marketing and acculturation actions for the market development of the new category;
1.1.4 It can collaborate in the definition of sustainable production practices;
1.1.5 Provides technical and managerial assistance to production units in opting villages, helping to structure sustainable and competitive businesses;
1.1.6 Collaborates in the definition of returnable and collectible packaging;
1.1.7 Seeks to value the traditions and knowledge of the indigenous communities involved in the production process;
1.1.8 It proposes partnerships with different actors, including public agencies and private companies, to achieve its socio-environmental responsibility objectives;
1.1.9 Contributes to the economic development of the opting indigenous communities;
1.1.10 It seeks to respect the culture and traditions of these populations and ensure that they are the protagonists of the process.

2.2 - Responsibilities of Cauim Production Units - CPU

The Cauim Production Units (CPUs) are cauim production units located in the indigenous villages (companies with purposes sympathetic to indigenous causes) participating in the project. The purpose of the CPUs is the production of quality cauim, using sustainable techniques and valuing local cultural traditions.

The village that opts for the project would have a sustainable production of Cauim, would plant cassava in Mandiomityma (multi-culture agroforestry units) and a production environment with low environmental impact in the village, with commercial flow routes away from the daily lives of the people

The CPUs also play a crucial role in preserving the cultural traditions of indigenous communities. This can be done through the adoption of ancestral Cauim production techniques (as long as they respect market quality rules), the use of handcrafted bottles that show the aesthetics of the ethnic group and show its culture through art and design, and the appreciation of the cultural practices involved in the production of Cauim.

The CPUs are also responsible for ensuring the sustainability of the production process. This includes the use of agroforestry production techniques, the adoption of soil and water management practices that do not harm the environment, and the implementation of conservation and preservation measures for the ecosystems involved.

Finally, CPUs play an important role in generating income and strengthening the local economy of indigenous communities. With the production and commercialization of quality Cauim, the CPUs can contribute to the socioeconomic development of the villages, generating jobs and stimulating the creation of sustainable businesses. They will play the role of producing their own Cauim.

- The Cauim production unit, Kaûĩ apó sará in Tupi-Antigo, is very simple - it has a cooking pot (Mbeîu motimbora), chiller (ro'y) and a fermentation vat (Haguino ygua). The structure would also have solar panels (Kûarasy ybyra), treatment of waste and composting, a store and cultural center, to tell a little about the history of the ethnic group, fulfilling an ecological, cultural role and generating financial return.

Cauim can be produced from pure cassava or mixed with other raw materials, cultivated in plantations in agroforestry systems in the villages. The company encourages and supports sustainable production in villages, ensuring that agriculture is carried out responsibly and in accordance with the quality standards required for Cauim.

The bottles used with Cauim 'containers' can be handcrafted, using the aesthetics of the ethnic group and showing its culture through art. The idea is to make the most of its own resources and tell its own story, valuing the culture and identity of the opting ethnic groups.

In summary, the Owner Company - CAUIM TIAKAU aims to ensure the economic and social viability of Cauim, promote the drink's visibility through marketing and acculturation actions, encourage the sustainable production of cassava in the villages and value indigenous culture and identity. through the art and aesthetics of the bottle.

Nothing is written in stone

The present strategic business planning has clear criteria that include respect for the indigenous culture and the promotion of the sustainable development of the communities involved, but it is only a viable suggestion in which a Proprietor Company is associated with a Cauim Production Unit - CPU, through an expected initial investment of BRL 700,000.00.

However, it is important to say that this proposal is not fixed, that any other business format can be viable, as long as they meet the following criteria:

2.2.1- The production processes must be named in Old Tupi and also in the language of the opting ethnic group;
2.2.2- Each ethnic group must be the protagonist of the concept, flavor and activations of its Cauim, with the help of the company Empresa Proprietária;
2.2.3- The village that opts for the project must receive financial and cultural benefits, greater than or equal to those of the Owner Company, never less;
2.2.4- If the CPU is not an indigenous village, part of the net income must be donated to indigenous causes.

It is also important to point out that any format of partnership must meet these criteria, especially that of naming the productive processes in Ancient Tupi, thus allowing each ethnic group to be the protagonist of its own Cauim and guaranteeing that the opting villages receive great financial and cultural benefits.

2.3- Point of Convergence

Ironically, the oldest existing Brazilian drink, produced even before the arrival of Portuguese colonizers, did not have a specific marketing law.

When we learned about the project to change the Decree that regulates alcoholic beverages in the Brazilian market, I made a point of requesting the terminology CAUIM for an alcoholic beverage fermented from cassava, which had existed since long before the arrival of the Portuguese colonizers.

As we had already started the development of Cauim production processes in 2011, we had been preparing and improving the drink at each mash, in partnership with several partners, including Fatec De Araçatuba, by Professor Hildo Sena.

Cauim was presented to chefs, bartenders and opinion-forming customers with the aim of improving the product. With that, we gathered extensive documentation that not only covers production details, but also shows the cultural, socioeconomic and national representativeness importance that Cauim can have.

In April 2022, a public consultation was held for the revision of Decree No. 6,871, of 04/06/2009, which regulates Law No. 8,918, of July 14, 1994, on alcoholic beverages.

We were prepared, and very quickly we delivered extensive and careful documentation explaining the socio-cultural and representative importance of the drink.

As a result, since December, CAUIM has already been included in the bill, A GREAT ACHIEVEMENT!

...but much still needs to be done.

2.4- Market analysis

The food and beverage market is constantly growing, with a growing demand for sustainable products with cultural value. Cauim can stand out in this market, as it is a traditional drink with a strong cultural appeal.

The project can operate both in the national and international markets, exploring the appreciation of indigenous cultures and the concern for sustainability.
- Here we see the strategy for introducing products following the line of the Pyramid of Opinion Makers, in which the launch should be made to the consumer with the greatest potential to form new consumers, generating a desire for chain consumption.

Like me, most of the partners involved in the Cauim Project development process are former Pernod Ricard colleagues, so we apply a lot of our international experience to design a product according to the identified target audience.

Research carried out shows that the consumer belonging to the mainstream, unlike the consumer of the elites, is still not prepared to receive new Brazilian endogenous products.

In this sense, we focus our efforts on developing a premium drink to be consumed in restaurants such as Alex Atala’s DOM and Hotel Emiliano, in harmony with the most sophisticated Brazilian cuisine and paving the way for the making of drinks of excellence in the world's cocktail industry.

We should also consider the so-called 'Havaianas effect', in which something that is valued outside Brazil also becomes highly valued in the country.

Another very interesting point is that a survey carried out in 2011, when the project began, pointed to a duality in the perception of quality of products with indigenous names, especially those of Tupi origin. While brands like Iguatemi and Jaguar are associated with high quality products, others like Tabajara and Caramurú can be seen as caricatures and of inferior quality.

Adding elements of Japanese culture to Cauim's marketing, such as the modern and disruptive aesthetics of Japanese consumption, can help to overcome this negative perception, since the perception of quality is a crucial factor in the consumer's purchase decision.

In this sense, we arrive at the brand name TIAKAU (from the Old Tupi T'ÎAKA'U! , which means LET'S DRINK!)

Ere'u-potarype amõ mani? T'ÎAKA'U!
Want to drink some Mani? YES, LET'S DRINK!!

2.5- Marketing strategy

Investments will be channeled into strategies for disseminating indigenous culture and traditions, showing the importance of the beverage and the communities involved in the production process, generating great appeal for experimentation and creation of consumption habits, based on the two basic pillars of communication;

2.5.1- the excessive effort in communication and training on Cauim; 
2.5.2- dazzling product activations.

Promoting dazzling product activations generate a strong recall stimulus in thought-leading customers, so that they can be transmitted to the primary trendsetter, then secondary and finally, with cascading repercussions towards the mainstream.

We will also use the classic launch strategy on On-Premise and Off-Premise channels, in which On actions have direct repercussions on Off, from conscious opinion makers, such as social networks, cultural events and food and beverage fairs.

It is also important to highlight the concern with the sustainability of the production process, valuing agroforestry practices, zero CO2 emissions, waste management with returnable packaging and pieces created with techniques from the ethnic group itself (e.g.: typical vases that serve as Cauim bottles, which can be collectible by consumers and become pieces that communicate the culture of the ethnic group through art).

2.6 - Operational Plan Production Methods

São três os processos de produção do CAUIM (até agora) com nomes em tupi antigo - uma espécie de língua franca indígena falada aqui até 1790.

O processo mais antigo conhecido é o ancestral, no qual a quebra do amido em açúcares é feita com a amilase salivar (Aîpi o- su'u su'u I nomu, literalmente mastigação e salivação das mulheres).

Porém, para fins industriais, o CAUIM pode ser produzido pelo processo enzimático, desenvolvido por Hildo Sena, ou pelo processo japonês, desenvolvido por Luiz Pagano.

Sabẽ M'baraká to sprinkle the sabẽ, the koji, in the Sabẽ nonga phase (placement of spores in Old Tupi - Tupi Antigo) which acts as a substitute for salivary amylase to decompose starch into sugars in the Japanese / Pagano process - Luiz Pagano Tupi Pop. The Maraca has an importance that goes beyond the rhythmic force, within the ancestral magical and spiritual thought of our ethnic groups, just as the human body is rocked by the sound emitted by the spirit, which inhabits our interiors, the pebbles and seeds placed inside the gourd, emit the sound of life.

2.6.1 Production Methods – Enzymatic or Senna

In the enzyme developed by Hildo Sena, the raw material is cassava starch (MANIKUERA in ancient Tupi);

1- T-Y-PûERA MBO'YÚ–SARA (hydration phase) in this exclusive phase of the enzymatic process, the cassava starch is hydrated with water and Amylases;

2- SABẽ APó, name in Old Tupi for the placement of AMG enzyme and thus promote the breakdown of starches into sugars; 

3- T-Y-PûERA MOPUPU RA–SARA (broth boiling phase)

4- HAGUINO, the process ends with alcoholic fermentation in the vat (KAUBA), filtration ( Mbeîu mogûaba ) and bottling (Ybyraygá pupé).

2.6.2 Production Methods – Japanese or Pagano

In the Japanese method developed by Luiz Pagano, the raw material is the cassava pearl (ITAITINGA BEIJU in Old Tupi);

1- Mbeîu motimbora (steaming the beiju), in this exclusive phase of the Pagano process, the cassava pearl is steamed;

2- To sprinkle the spores (Sabẽ nonga), I used a Sabẽ M'baraká, a type of container with a screen, similar to a maraca;

4- HAGUINO, the process ends with alcoholic fermentation in the vat (KAUBA), filtration (Mbeîu mogûaba ) and bottling (Ybyraygá pupé).

1- Mbeîu motimbora (steaming the beiju), in this exclusive phase of the Pagano process, the cassava pearl is steamed;

2- To sprinkle the spores (Sabẽ nonga), I used a Sabẽ M'baraká, a type of container with a screen, similar to a maraca;

4- HAGUINO, the process ends with alcoholic fermentation in the vat (KAUBA), filtration (Mbeîu mogûaba ) and bottling (Ybyraygá pupé).

2.7 - Partners

The Project foresees that the UPCs that will be implanted in the indigenous communities will work together with public and private agents, who will provide support for the sustainable production of Cauim. It will be important to ensure that ethnic groups are protagonists of the production process, ensuring the appreciation of their traditions and knowledge, but with full support from the São Paulo office's logistics and marketing department.

Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation): FUNAI will support the Cauim project by promoting dialogue with indigenous leaders and opting communities, ensuring that the project respects the culture and traditions of these populations and ensuring that they are the protagonists of the process.

Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service (SEBRAE): SEBRAE could provide technical and managerial assistance to production units in opting villages, helping to structure sustainable and competitive businesses.

Ministry of the Environment (MMA): The MMA could contribute to the Cauim project by offering guidance on sustainable production practices and environmental management, in addition to providing technical and financial support for preservation and conservation projects for ecosystems involved in the production process.

Among others,

Finally, private sector companies can provide financial and logistical support for the implementation and dissemination of the Cauim project, as well as collaborate in the definition of sustainable production practices and in the development of returnable and collectible packaging. 

2.8 - Financial Plan

The project has the potential to generate revenue through the sale of Cauim. It will be important to ensure that the indigenous communities involved in the process are fairly remunerated and that the project is financially sustainable.

Spreadsheet 1 PCU:

Spreadsheet 1 CAUIM TIAKAU: 

2.8.1 - Production Unit in Village or similar

Based on the projected data, we can calculate the

Breakeven point reached at 18 months.

To calculate the break-even point, we consider the firm's fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not vary with sales volume, such as rent, wages, etc. Variable costs are those that vary with sales volume, such as raw materials, sales commissions, etc.

Considering that we only have one Production Unit in Optant Villages, according to the attached statement, we can assume that the company has fixed costs of R$437,493.10/18 = R$24,305.17 per month. Sales plus bonuses total BRL 493,074.92 + BRL 34,223.25 = BRL 527,298.17 in 18 months, which gives a monthly average of BRL 29,294.34.

Subtracting the fixed costs from the average monthly billing, we have:
BRL 29,294.34 - BRL 24,305.17 = BRL 4,989.17.

This means that the company needs to sell, on average, R$ 4,989.17 per month to cover its costs and reach the break-even point in the 18-month period. If the company sells less than this value, it will have a loss; if you sell more, you will make a profit.

As the company's result was R$ 21,358.57, we can conclude that it has already surpassed the break-even point and is having positive results.

2.8.2 - Company Owner - CAUIM TIAKAU, established in São Paulo, close to the former Historic Triangle of Inhapuambuçú

Based on the projected data, we can calculate the breakeven point at 18 months.

To calculate the break-even point, we consider the firm's fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not vary with sales volume, such as rent, wages, etc. Variable costs are those that vary with sales volume, such as raw materials, sales commissions, etc.

Considering that we only have one Production Unit in Optant Villages, according to the attached statement, we can assume that the company has fixed costs of R$437,493.10/18 = R$24,305.17 per month. Sales plus bonuses total BRL 493,074.92 + BRL 34,223.25 = BRL 527,298.17 in 18 months, which gives a monthly average of BRL 29,294.34.

Subtracting the fixed costs from the average monthly billing, we have:
BRL 29,294.34 - BRL 24,305.17 = BRL 4,989.17.

This means that the company needs to sell, on average, R$ 4,989.17 per month to cover its costs and reach the break-even point in the 18-month period. If the company sells less than this value, it will have a loss; if you sell more, you will make a profit.

As the company's result was R$ 21,358.57, we can conclude that it has already surpassed the break-even point and is having positive results.

2.8.3 - Partnership between Owner Company - CAUIM TIAKAU & Cauim Production Unit

The partnership between the São Paulo Office and the Cauim production unit was, from a financial point of view, a success as it reached the break-even point in 18 months, which means that the revenue generated was sufficient to cover all costs and investments made during this period.

In addition, it is possible that the expansion of the business with the increase in the number of Cauim production units could generate greater revenues for the São Paulo office, since there will be more products to be sold and more units generating profit.

Finally, the partnership between the São Paulo office and the Cauim production units can generate visibility and promote the culture and values of the indigenous peoples involved in the business, which can be an important factor in terms of social responsibility and appreciation of diversity cultural.

Considering that the initial investment of the São Paulo office was BRL 437,493.10 and the investment of the Cauim Production Unit was BRL 248,424.03, the total investment was BRL 685,917.13.

With the return of the break-even point in 18 months and a positive result of BRL 52,311.65, it can be inferred that the initial investment was recovered and that there was an additional profit.

However, it is important to remember that these values are approximate and may vary depending on several factors, such as production efficiency, sales performance, additional costs, among others.

2.9- Events
2.9.1 - Paired dinner at Hotel Toriba

One of the first experiences we had with events to promote Cauim was the first dinner harmonized with Cauim, outside an indigenous village, for the Brazilian consumer public. Luiz Pagano and Hildo Sena served the still experimental CAUIM TIAKAU to be tasted and harmonized with reinterpretations of indigenous dishes.

After a brief lecture on Cauim and its role as a genuinely Brazilian drink of excellence, served exclusively by more than 305 indigenous ethnic groups throughout Brazil, Cauim was offered and the public was able to enjoy a technical tasting and then it was served to accompany the dishes.

"Our proposal is to make Cauim go beyond the borders of indigenous villages and serve as an integration drink, increasingly reducing the great cultural distance that separates us from our native brothers, promoting respect, friendship and integration" said Luiz Pagano.

The Magnificent dinner, executed with excellence by the students of SENAC Campos do Jordão, at the Toriba restaurant in Campos do Jordão, in the middle of Serra da Mantiqueira, under the regency of Professor Vitor Pompeu, featured the Indigenous Chef Kalymaracaya from the Terena de Aquidauana ethnic group and Chef Caiçara Fábio Eustáquio from Ubatuba, who created the dishes on the 5-course menu: cover charge, starter, main course 1 and main course 2 for dessert.

Prepared to serve 50 people and with the financial return fully reverted to APAE, the menu was:

Yam bread with cocoa nib butter and cashew nut butter.
Sardinha com salada pancs e sagu suflado

Sardines with pancs salad and suffused sagu (manioc brazilian sago)

Siri Pupunha

Boar meat with black and white tucupi sauce - Terra e Rio
Terra e Rio ("Earth and River" - sauced with black and white tucupi)

Fried breaded banana with coconut ice cream and cashew jam

2.9.2 – Lectures on Historical Background

It is not known if in the history of Brazil there was a dinner in this sense, Cauim, fermented cassava whose original production process the transformation promotes the breakdown of starches into sugars through traditional chewing and skewering, has always been served in indigenous villages.

In the history of Brazil João Ramalho, known as 'O Pai dos Paulistas', was perhaps the first European to drink Cauim with his family, in the years 1530~1545, alongside his father-in-law chief Tibiriçá, his wife Bartira, along with their family members. Like him, other Europeans who decided to marry and adopt the tribes' lifestyle also consumed cauim in their meals.

2.9.3 - Tasting at Bar Convent Brasil, BCB in São Paulo

On June 18, 2019, we participated in the first edition of the largest bar and beverage event in the world, BCB São Paulo, with a tasting and lecture for professionals in the beverage market, including bar chefs, restaurateurs, among other major players in the field. Marketplace.

Luiz Pagano and Hildo Sena presented Cauim to opinion makers in the beverage industry with a tasting and lecture for more than 60 people at the BCB Bar Convent in 2019, São Paulo

2.9.4 - Anhangá Festival in the Anhangabaú Valley (São Paulo important central neighborhood) 

Another interesting idea to promote Cauim Tiakau and its connection with Brazilian indigenous culture and history is the celebration of Conservador das Matas Day, July 17th, with an Anhangá party in Vale do Anhangabaú.

The Anhangá is a legendary figure in Brazilian indigenous culture, usually portrayed as a giant white deer with red eyes. He is considered the protector of nature and persecutes those who disrespect it and hunt indiscriminately, especially those who kill young or mothers who are raising their young and pollute the waters.

The Anhanga is commonly portrayed as a white deer, of atrocious size, with red eyes the color of fire. He is the protector of nature and pursues all those who hunt indiscriminately, disrespects nature and punishes those who hunt puppies or mothers who are nurturing their young and polluting their waters. The valley of the Anhangabaú river was sacred, the inhabitants of Piratininga held services and parties to make the god happier and less vindictive. Today we not only drown the Anhangá river, but also forget the main spirit of our city. Despising our Tupiniquin traditions in this way is unforgivable!

The valley of the Anhangabaú river was sacred to the inhabitants of Piratininga, who held cults and parties to please the god and avoid his wrath. Today, the Anhangá river has been channeled and our city seems to have forgotten its Tupiniquim traditions. Forgetting our cultural traditions in this way is regrettable and deserves attention for the preservation of these histories and memories.

Proprietary festival with the role of highlighting the importance of preserving forests and indigenous culture, in addition to celebrating the important river of Aldeia do Inhapuambuçu, the Anahngabaú River would be a unique opportunity to promote the Cauim Tiakau drink and its connection with history since the old center of São Paulo de Piratininga. The inclusion of traditional drinks in cultural celebrations can be a way to increase awareness and engagement about the importance of cultural and environmental preservation.

2.10 - SWOT Analysis – Strengths

We can highlight the following strengths of the Cauim Project:

Cultural rescue: The project seeks to rescue Brazilian culture, more specifically indigenous ones, through the recreation of an emblematic and millenary alcoholic cassava ferment.

Sustainable development: The project promotes the sustainable development of the communities involved in the process, by encouraging the creation of cauim production units that make the most of the resources available in the village itself, minimizing the environmental impact.

Income generation: Cauim production units can generate extra income for indigenous villages and communities that choose to participate in the project.

Market potential: Cauim can become a differentiated and outstanding product in the gastronomic market, meeting the needs of demanding consumers who seek authentic products with cultural value.

Strategic partnerships: The project already has a proprietary company established in São Paulo, which has been carrying out sporadic work to acculturate the new product and creating strategic activations to reinforce the work carried out in the opting villages.

All these forces contribute to the success of the project, which has the potential to become a socially responsible and profitable initiative.

2.10.2 – Swot Analysis – Weaknesses

We can highlight the following weaknesses of the Cauim Project:

Dependence on natural resources: as the drink is produced from cassava, the project depends on the availability of this natural resource. If there are weather problems or other factors that affect cassava production, this could negatively impact cauim production.

Sensitivity to the production process: Cauim production is a complex and delicate process, which requires specific care to guarantee the quality and safety of the final product. Errors in the process can lead to unsatisfactory or even dangerous results for the consumer, which can damage the reputation of the project.

Dependence on partnerships: as the project depends on partnerships with indigenous communities for the production of Cauim, problems in these relationships can affect the supply of raw materials and the quality of the final product.

Exposure to changes in the market: although the idea of valuing indigenous culture through the production of cauim can be a competitive differential, it is possible that consumers are not willing to pay a higher price for a product considered exotic. In addition, changes in consumer trends can affect demand for the product.

Difficulties in obtaining investments: the project requires a significant investment to consolidate itself, which can be a challenge in an uncertain economic scenario or in a situation of lack of investor interest in projects with social and cultural impact.

2.10.3 – Swot Analysis – Opportunities

We can highlight the following opportunities of the Cauim Project:

Growing interest in the consumption of artisanal and locally produced beverages, which can create a demand for products such as Cauim, which value indigenous culture and traditions.

Potential to explore cultural tourism, offering unique experiences in visits to the Cauim producing villages, generating income for communities and promoting the dissemination of indigenous culture.

There are possibility of collaborating with tourism and food companies to expand product dissemination and offer experiences involving the drink and indigenous culture.

The alcoholic beverage market presents constant changes and innovations, which can open space for Cauim as an exotic and differentiated option.

Growing environmental awareness and sustainable consumption can increase the value of products produced in a conscious way and with minimal environmental impact, as is the case of Cauim produced by Cauim Production Units in opting villages.

2.10.4 - SWOT Analysis - Risks

We can highlight the following risks of the Cauim Project:

Operational risk: as it is a food product, it is necessary to pay attention to health and quality aspects throughout the production, storage and distribution process. Any problem in this regard can affect the company's reputation and consumer confidence in the product.

Market risk: the alcoholic beverages market is very competitive and volatile, with constant changes in consumer preferences. In addition, the success of the project depends on the company's ability to achieve and maintain consumer loyalty. Any flaw in the marketing or distribution strategy could jeopardize the product's market acceptance.

Financial risk: operating a business involves costs and expenses that need to be managed efficiently to ensure financial sustainability. In addition, obtaining financing for the project can be a challenge, especially in a scenario of economic instability.

Environmental risk: Cauim production may involve the use of natural resources and the generation of waste, which may impact the environment and generate environmental liabilities if not done in a responsible and sustainable manner.

Regulatory risk: it is important to comply with rules and regulations related to the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages, in addition to issues related to the use of natural resources and environmental preservation.

In order to minimize these risks, the project must have solid planning, qualified professionals committed to quality and sustainability, as well as a contingency plan to deal with possible problems that may arise along the way.

2.11 – General Conclusion

We are very grateful and pleased to present the Cauim Project.

We believe that this initiative has the potential to generate significant benefits for Brazilian culture, promoting the sustainable development of the communities involved and, at the same time, opening new market opportunities in the gastronomic sector.

We thank everyone who dedicated their time to learn more about the project and we are entirely available to investors and stakeholders who wish to join us in this endeavor. We believe that, together, we can turn this idea into reality, strengthening indigenous culture and contributing too social and economic development of the country.

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