Sunday, December 16, 2007

World’s coolest Vehicle Registration Plates

Mr. Tamashiro had problems when trying to buy a Toyota Camry in Japan, trading almost went wrong because of a small detail. His license plate of the car carrying the numbers 4219 (shi ni iku), which in Japanese has the same sound "you will die".

leia este artigo em Português

The numbers have a big signification once you write them in Japanese letters (kanji).The most feared number in Japan and China is four which means death in both countries. But Mr. Tamashiro just had to pay some extra money to change the plate number and have the deal closed.

Car plates have always inspired curiosity and admiration, and could show some intrinsic particularities of some countries. 31 year old Jeroen Coninx is a car plate aficionado, he brings in his site plates from more than 100 countries , “My mother always said I could tell where a car was from before I even could read.”

The history of license plates has started by the same time that chariots were replaced by automobiles, appearing in the earliest period of the transition from the horse, from 1890 to 1910. The Netherlands were the first country to introduce a national license plate, first called a "driving permit", in 1898. The first licenses were simply plates with a number, starting at 1. By August 8th of 1899 the counter was at 168. When the Dutch chose a different way to number the plates on January 15th 1906 the last issued plate was 2065.

Standardization of plates came in 1957, when automobile manufacturers came to an agreement with governments and international standards organizations. While peculiar local variants still exist, there are three basic standards worldwide:

- 12 by 6 inches (300 mm by 150 mm) - Used in the majority of the Americas.

- 20.5 by 4.5 inches (520 mm by either 110 or 120 mm) - Used in the bulk of the European countries and many of their former overseas territories.

- 14.5 by 5.3 inches (372 mm by 135 mm) - Used in Australia and some other Pacific Rim countries, about halfway between the dimensions of the other two standards, longer than Western Hemisphere plates but taller than European ones.

Some countries permit the re-registration of the vehicle with "personal" ("vanity" or "Cherished Mark") plates. When the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country it will require re-registering in the country of import. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as overland holiday tourist visits, regardless of the amount of time it is due to remain there; this has to be arranged with prior approval.

On February 16, 2008 a businessman named Saeed Abdul Ghafour Khouri payed 52.2 dirham (up  to $14.3 million) for the local license plate labeled "1" at an auction at the Seven Star Emirates Palace Hotel in Abu Dhabi, making it the world's most expensive license plate.

Believe it or not, plates has inspired Mr Coninx and his wife Eva to do what should be called “Vehicle Registration Plate Tourism”, he has traveled throughout the world just to get some nice pictures of plates, “The plates are taken anywhere I could, in Belgium or somewhere else. Traveling is thus very important to me, not only because of plates, also because I really like seeing the world”.

Vehicle registration plates of Argentina
Vehicle registration plates of Argentina
Vehicle registration plates of Brazil
Vehicle registration plates of Brazil
Vehicle registration plates of Japan
Vehicle registration plates of Japan
Vehicle registration plates of UK
Vehicle registration plates of UK
Vehicle registration plates of Ohio - USA
Vehicle registration plates of Ohio
Vehicle registration plates of Russia
Vehicle registration plates of Russia
Vehicle registration plates of wyoming - USA
Vehicle registration plates of Wyoming

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Not just another “BRIC” in the wall

In November, 2001, at exactly six years ago Jim O’Neill, global economist at Goldman Sachs coined the term BRIC, to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.

According to Jim the economies of the BRICs are rapidly developing and by the year 2050 will be amongst the highest developed countries of the world.

At the beginning of the 1990´s the countries of BRIC responded for 5% of the world’s GDP in less than 15 years the countries have tripled this number. Now BRIC has 15% of the world’s GDP and sill grows.

According to Jim O’Neill by the year 2050 china will have the first position with a GDP of 71 trillion dollars, followed by US with 38,5 trillion dollars, India in the third place with 37,5 trillion dollars, Brazil with 11 trillion dollars, Mexico will respond for 9 trillion dollars and finally Russia at the sixth position with 8,5 trillion dollars.

Wall Street investors who have recognized this opportunity have profited. An equal-weighted basket of ETFs representing each country - Brazil (EWZ), Russia (TRF), India (IFN) and China (FXI) returned over 45% last year. Significantly outperforming the MSCI Emerging Markets ETF (EEM, +24%) which includes all of the emerging market countries.

OK, but how about Russian, Chinese, Brazilian or Indian brands, movies, and the other stuff that the economic dominant leader should bring together. Does economic leadership really means cultural influence?

By the time that Goldman & Sachs first mentioned BRIC, me and my friends were expecting for another cultural evolution. Maybe in the future we could go to the movies to watch some Chinese or Brazilian spoken blockbuster, or go to a famous Russian vodka brand’s mega-party and even make lines in front some Indian high tech store to have the brand new Multi use Indian software.
Instead, things are not exactly as we expected to be, but we are experiencing some changes. Chinese company Lifan has been in the headlines here in Brazil since august 2006 when we heard some rumors about Lifans attempts to buy the BMW factory out of Brazil. The factory was set up by BMW and Daimler Chrysler in 1999 to make 1.4 and 1.6 engines for the South American market, Lifan also makes a 1.6L car so the two obviously go together perfectly, and if Lifan were to make its ‘new range of cars‘ then they’d have a whole engine making set up from the get go.

Lifan did try to purchase the BMW factory last year, however, the Brazilian government did not allow them to put the whole factory in boxes to be shipped to China and be reassembled at the Lifan factory. Lifan is no stranger to having overseas factories, in total it already has 18 factories outside of China but these are all producing motorcycles for various markets, Lifan only jumped in the car making game last year when it began to produce the Lifan 520 automobile.
In Wikinomics Don Tapscott and Antony D. Williams explain how Chinese government let Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha penetrate the country with license agreements, and how reverse engineering helped Lifan emerged as one of the most prosperous and fast growing companies located in Chongquing, one of the also prosperous and fast growing cities in central China:

“When it comes to motorcycles, China is king of the industry.

Motorcycle production has tripled to more than 15 million from five million vehicles a year since the mid-1990s. That's about 50 per cent of the global pie, making China the world's leader.

Meanwhile, the price of Chinese motorcycles built for the rapidly expanding Asian export market has dropped to $200 (U.S.) on average from $700. Not surprisingly, Chinese firms such as Lifan, Zongshen, and Jialing are now displacing well-known Japanese competitors such as Honda, Suzuki and Yamaha as the vehicle providers of choice.”

Yin Mingshan the 69 year old Chinese pioneer behind Lifan accomplishments said that Lifan is planning to IPO later this year on the Shanghai stock exchange to raise funds to further its car making ambitions.
Not so apart from Paris-New York fashion circuit the Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week is a fashion show held in New Delhi annually since 2000. This year week from September 5 and September 9, 2007, India Fashion week featured some of the top fashion designer ranges in India including that of The Glass House range by Kavita Bhartiya.

The numbers of Indian fashion designers hired by the biggest of global brands is increasingly growing as well as the number of the domestic designers who have also set up boutiques in some of the important fashion destinations of the world.
Last September 20th India’s newsstands woke up with some beautiful faces printed on the cover the brand new Vogue India ). Featuring Bollywood stars Bipasha Basu, Priyanka Chopra and Preity Zinta, local supermodels MoniKangana Dutta and Laxmi Menon, and Australian supermodel Gemma Ward, shot by fashion photographer Patrick Demarchelier.

The inaugural issue of Vogue India is expected to be more colorful and more vibrant than the western models, according to Alex Kuruvilla, managing director of Conde Nast India. He also expects it to draw attention to Indian designers, Indian photographers, and even Indian models.

The name Guarana (pronounced gwa-ra-naa) a berry that grows in the northern parts of Brazil comes from the Guarani tribe that lives in Brazil. Guarana plays a very important role in Brazilian culture, as this herb is believed to be magical, a cure for bowel complaints and a way to regain strength. Guarana-based drinks are common in Brazil and are getting more and more popular all over the world. Some companies says that guarana could be a more important Brazilian export product than soccer players!
Pepsi and Coca Cola made their first moves some years ago when decided to product their own guarana soda varieties. Pepsi tried to market 'Josta' in the US in 1997 in the U.S., but discontinued it when it didn't sell in large volume; Coca Cola still sells 'Kuat' in Brazil (with some success). But as Brazilian people well know, imitation brands still can't compete with the original Brazilian brands - the genuine flavor of guarana is sometimes absent and apparently replaced by an overdose of sugar. Guarana lovers, mainly Brazilians says that the authentic Guarana is Brazilian Guarana.
According to AmBev Guaraná Antarctica is an authentic brand, with unique and original flavor of Brazil . It is the second soft drink brand most sold in the country and absolute leader in its segment. Currently, it is ranked among the 15 best-selling brands in the world.
Last September 26th the new civil plane was unveiled at a Sukhoi military factory at Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Russia’s Far East on September 26.

President Vladmir President Vladimir Putin’s bid to revive its once mighty aviation industry on September brought out its first modern commercial airliner for the global market - the Superjet.Built by the former Soviet Union’s largest warplane maker Sukhoi.
Regional jets is an $8 billion market dominated by Brazil’s Embraer and Bombardier of Canada, though that is relatively small compared with the $60 billion spent annually on big jets made by Boeing and Airbus. “This is a very important program for Russia because it means the rebirth of its aerospace industry,” said Marc Ventre, executive vice-president of aerospace propulsion at French conglomerate Safran.

Maybe it is the first time that you hear about some companies mentioned in this article, but surely in the next ten years those BRIC’s brands along with far more others will be the headlines of Wall Street Journal.

If don’t at the WSJ, they will surely will be on the top of the front pages of Brazilian Gazeta Mercantil, the Russian business daily Kommersant, China Business News (CBN) or Indian Standard.

Monday, November 5, 2007

Stock Markets of the World

Publicans in ancient Rome are wrongly known as ancient Rome’s Tax Collectors, but they were more than that. In fact Publicans were public contractors, in which role they often supplied the Roman military, managed the collection of port duties, oversaw public building projects and also managed participation contracts called "socii" for large cooperatives and "particulae" for small companies which were analogous to today's Over-The-Counter shares. According to Edward Chancellor Public auction was known in ancient Rome. In his book Devil Take the Hindmost, Chancellor stated that Polybius (ca. 203–120 BC, Greek Πολύβιος) the Greek historian, famous for his book The Histories or The Rise of the Roman Empire reports that by the second century B.C. people was really frenetic buying and selling papers. But unfortunelly we are not sure how that worked at that time.
What we do know is that the first company to issue shares of stock was the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC ) in 1602. Joint ownership sponsored Europe's economic growth by financing the building of ships, ending the Dark Ages and introducing the new and prosperous age of Mercantilism.

The trade in shares in London began with the need to finance two voyages: The Muscovy Company's attempt to reach China via the White Sea north of Russia, and the East India Company voyage to India and the east. In 1695 there were almost 140 joint-stock companies that financed these costly journeys, the companies raised the money by selling shares to merchants, giving them a right to a portion of any profits eventually made.
The NYSE founded in May 17, 1792, when 24 men signed under a buttonwood tree the Buttonwood Agreement outside of Wall Street in New York.
The need for an index to balance shares activities into the economy leaded to the Dow Jones Industrial average first published on May 26, 1896. The DJIA represented the average of twelve stocks from various important American industries. It was computed as a direct average, by first adding up stock prices of its components and then dividing by the number of stocks, it was first published at the figure 40.94.
Dow Jones Index has adopted the Price-weighted method where the price of each component stock is the only consideration when determining the value of the index. Concerns about the relative size of the companies as a hole leaded to the creation of another kind of weight, the value weighted or capitalization-weighted index, in which a relatively small shift in the price of a large company will heavily influence the value of the index.
There are stock exchanges located all over the world, and it is possible negotiate stocks on anyone of them, just taking into the consideration its oparating hours of exchange. Both the NYSE and NASDAQ, for example, operate from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm Eastern Time, Monday through Friday. Others have similar opening hours based on their local time. When you trade on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, your order will be processed sometime between 9:30 pm and 4:00 am New York time.
The Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE - Hebrew: הבורסה לניירות ערך בתל אביב‎) located in Israel operates from Sunday through Thursday and the Exchange is closed on Friday.
Stock indices all over the world works as an economic wealth thermometer, stabbed into several places over the Earth, but as the practice of medicine, they should combine both science as the evidence base and art in the application of this medical knowledge in combination with intuition and clinical judgment to determine the treatment plan for each patient. As Henry Ford said on his book Today and Tomorrow “The stock market as such has nothing to do with business. It has nothing to do with the quality of the article which is manufactured, nothing to do with the output, nothing to do with the marketing, it does not even increase or decrease the amount of capital used in the business. It is just a little show on the side.”
List of the main stock market indices:
Global indices
1 - BBC Global 30 - mixes the economic information of 30 of the world's largest companies based in three continents.
2 - MSCI World - selection of stocks of all the developed markets in the world, as defined by MSCI,- Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States
3 - S&P Global 100 - measures the performance of 100 multinational companies
4 - S&P Global 1200 - real time, free-float weighted stock market index of global stocks from Standard & Poor's. The index covers 31 countries and approximately 70 percent of global market capitalization. It is comprised of six regional indices:
S&P 500 Index;
S&P/TSX 60 Index (Canada)
S&P Latin America 40 Index (Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile)
S&P/TOPIX 150 Index (Japan)
S&P Asia 50 Index (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan)
S&P/ASX 50 Index (Australia)
S&P Europe 350 Index
5 - Russell Global 10000 Launched 17/01/07 - captures 98% of the global equity market, reflecting the performance of more than 10000 stocks worldwide.
6 - FTSE CNBC Global 300 - Consumer News and Business Channel index of 300 global corporations, through 18 subsectors in conjunction with London's FTSE Group.
National indexes
- Argentina
MERVAL - 12 Companies
- Australia
All Ordinaries
S&P/ASX 200
- Austria
- Belgium
- Brazil
Ibovespa - Bovespa Index
IBX - Brazil Index (~100 companies)
IBX50 - Brazil Index (50 companies)
IBVX-2 - Valor Bovespa Index (with Valor Econômico newspaper)
IEE (index) - Electric Power Index
IGC (index) - Special Corporate Governance Stock Index
ITEL - Telecommunication Sector Index
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
BIRS - main market index
FIRS - investment funds index
ERS10 - power utility index
- Bulgaria
- Canada
S&P/TSX 60
S&P/TSX Composite Index
S&P/TSX Venture Composite Index
- Chile
- China
SSE Composite - Shànghǎi Zhèngquàn Jiāoyìsuǒ - Shanghai Stock Exchange
- Croatia
- Cyprus

- Czech Republic
PX 50
- Denmark
OMX Copenhagen 20 (OMXC20)
OMX Copenhagen (OMXC) (all share)
- Egypt
- Estonia
OMX Tallinn (OMXT)
- Finland
OMX Helsinki 25 (OMXH25)
- France
CAC 40
CAC Next 20
SBF 250
- Germany
NEMAX 50 (discontinued in 2004)
MDAX (Mid Cap)
SDAX (Small Cap)
- Ghana
GSE All-Share Index
- Hong Kong
Hang Seng Index
HSI-Commerce and Properties
Hang Seng China Enter Index
Hang Seng MidCap 50 Index
Hang Seng China-Aff Corp Index
Hang Seng 100
Hang Seng IT Index
Hang Seng IT Portfolio Index
GEM (Growing Enterprise Market) Index
- Hungary
- Iceland
OMX Iceland 15
- India
NSE-50 (also called Nifty)
BSE Sensex
BSE 100
BSE 200
BSE 500
BSE Metal
BSE mid-cap
BSE small cap
BSE Auto
BSE Pharma
Nifty Jr.
- Indonesia
(Stock ticker)
IHSG (Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan — Composite Stock Price Index), also called Jakarta Composite Index
JII (Jakarta Islamic Index)
MBX (Main Board Index)
DBX (Development Board Index)
- Iran
TSE Main Board Index
TSE Secondary Board Index
TSE SAX ( 50 Co. Price Weighted Average )
- Ireland
ISEQ Overall Index - Irish Stock Exchange ([9])
- Israel
TASE 100 - Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
- Italy
MIB (index) (not used anymore)
MIB30 (not used anymore)
Nuovo Mercato (not used anymore)
- Japan
Nikkei 225 ([10])
- Jordan
ASE Weighted Index
- Kenya
NSE 20 Share Index
AIG 27 Share Index
- Latvia
- Luxembourg
LuxX Index - Luxembourg Stock Exchange
- Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur Composite Index
Second Board
Note that the KLCI and Second Board comes under the umbrella of Bursa Malaysia.
- Mexico
Indice de Precios y Cotizaciones (IPC) ("Bolsa index")
- Morocco
MASI index (Moroccan All Shares Index)
MADEX index (Moroccan Most Active shares Index)
- Moldova
EVM Composite index (Moldovian all shares Index, more details on
- Montenegro
- Netherlands
AEX index ([11])
AMX index (Midcap) ([12])
AScX index (Small Cap)
- New Zealand
- Nigeria
NSXA-B index (The All-Share Index) ([13])
- Norway
OSE All Share ([14])
- Oman
- Pakistan
KSE 100 Index
KSE All Share Index
KSE-30 Index
LSE 25
ISE 10
broad-base index since 1947
- Palestine
Al Quds Index
- Peru
IGBVL 20 shares main index
ISBVL 20 shares index
- Philippines
PSE Index (PSEi)
PSE All Shares Index
PSE Financials Index
PSE Industrial Index
PSE Holding Firms Index
PSE Property Index
PSE Services Index
PSE Mining & Oil Index
- Poland
WIG 20
mWIG 40
sWIG 80
- Portugal
PSI-20 ([15])
PSI Geral
- Qatar
- Romania
- Russia
MICEX (Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange)
RTS Index (RTSI)
- Saudi Arabia
BMG Index
- Singapore
Straits Times Index (STI)
United Overseas Bank SESDAQ (UOB-SESDAQ)
- Slovenia
SBI 20 (Slovene Stock Exchange Index)
SBI TOP (Slovene Blue Chip Index)
- South Africa
- South Korea
- Spain
Mercado Continuo
- Sweden
Attract 40
OMX Nordic Mid Cap
OMX Stockholm 30 (OMXS30)
OMX Stockholm PI (OMXSPI)
- Switzerland
Swiss Market Index ([16])
- Taiwan
Taiwan Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX)
- Thailand
SET Index
SET50 Index
MAI Index
- Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange (TTSE)
- Turkey
ISE-100 Index
- Ukraine
PFTS index
- United Kingdom
FT30 Index
FTSE 100 Index
FTSE MID 250 Index
FTSE 350 Index
FTSE All-Share Index
FTSE Fledgling Index
FTSE techMark Index
FTSE AIM All-Share Index
- United States
CBOE indices
CBOE DJIA BuyWrite Index (BXD)
CBOE NASDAQ-100 BuyWrite Index (BXN)
CBOE S&P 500 BuyWrite Index (BXM)
CBOE Volatility Index (VIX)
Dow Jones & Company indices
Dow Jones Composite Average
Dow Jones Global Titans
Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Transportation Average
Dow Jones Utility Average
Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Growth
Dow Jones U.S. Large Cap Value
Dow Jones U.S. Small Cap Growth
Dow Jones U.S. Small Cap Value
Dow Jones U.S. Total Market
Dow Jones Wilshire 4500
Dow Jones Wilshire 5000 Total Stock Market
Goldman Sachs indices
GSTI Semiconductor Index
GSTI Software Index
Nasdaq indices
NASDAQ Composite ([19])
Russell Indexes (published by Russell Investment Group)
Russell 3000
Russell 3000 Growth
Russell 3000 Value
Russell 1000
Russell 1000 Growth
Russell 1000 Value
Russell 2000
Russell 2000 Growth
Russell 2000 Value
Russell Top 200
Russell Top 200 Growth
Russell Top 200 Value
Russell MidCap
Russell MidCap Growth
Russell MidCap Value
Russell 2500
Russell 2500 Growth
Russell 2500 Value
Russell Small Cap Completeness
Russell Small Cap Completeness Growth
Russell Small Cap Completeness Value
Standard & Poor's indices
S&P 500
S&P Completion
S&P 500/BARRA Growth
S&P 500/BARRA Value
S&P Midcap 400
S&P Midcap 400/BARRA Growth
S&P Midcap 400/BARRA Value
S&P SmallCap 600
S&P SmallCap 600/BARRA Growth
S&P SmallCap 600/BARRA Value
- Vietnam
- Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe Industrial Index
Zimbabwe Mining Index

Monday, October 29, 2007

Future of the society

Almost 40 years ago an American writer and futurist, Alvin Toffler amused us when he and his wife Heidi depicted digital revolution, communications revolution, corporate revolution in his book Future Shock (1970 - Bantam Books).

Most of his predictions are now part of our day life, they were right!

But how can we be sure about the certainty of the predictions made by today’s futurologists? How can we use the predictions to make our next month/year/generation’s century better?

Maybe Charles Darwin had the answer: “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, not the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

Science fiction Star trek characters are 300 years away in the future where the man reached a final steady state of science and technology.

Stephen Hawking depicts in his chapter 6 of The Universe in a Nutshell why future unfortunately will not be like this.

Star Trek shows a society that is in most cases far advanced than ours, in science, in technology, and in political organization. The future science, technology, and the organization of society, are supposed to have achieved a level of near perfection.

Beside some set backs like the Dark Ages after the fall of the Roman Empire the human race has been in a state of constant knowledge and fixed technology and in the last two hundred years the population growth has become exponential. Currently the rate is about 1.9% a year. 1.9 % may not sound very much but it means that the world population doubles every 40 years.

If the scientific and technological developments continue at present level in the near future accompanied by the exponential growth, world's population would be standing shoulder to shoulder by the year 2600 and the electricity consumption would make the Earth glow red hot.

History has shown that the present exponential growth can not continue indefinitely. So what will happen? One possibility is that we wipe ourselves out completely by some disaster such as a nuclear war once we have the technological power to do so. Even if we don't destroy ourselves completely there is the possibility that we might descend into a state of brutalism and barbarity like the opening scene of Terminator. But it will not be the machines that will be the dominant class.

There has been no significant change in human DNA in the last ten thousand years. But it is most likely that human race will be able to completely redesign it in the next thousand.

Clearly developing improved humans will create great social and political problems with respect to unimproved humans. Hawking makes it quite clear when he says “I'm not advocating human genetic engineering as a good thing,”

Human race needs to improve its mental and physical qualities if it is to deal with the increasingly complex world around. That’s why science fiction like Star Trek is wrong when you see the same human being as we see today four hundred years in the future.

“But I'm an optimist. I think we have a good chance of avoiding both Armageddon and a new Dark Ages.”

Bellow you will find some forecasts for the next events :

May 25 2008 - NASA's Phoenix spacecraft will land on Mars.

June 14 2008 - Expo 2008 scheduled to begin in Zaragoza, Spain.

August 8-August 24 - The 2008 Summer Olympics will take place in Beijing, China.

February 17 2009 - Analog television broadcasts are scheduled to end in the United States, as the Federal Communications Commission will require all stations to send their signals digitally.

2010 unknown date - The Space Shuttle program will be retired by NASA and replaced by Project Constellation. This project will include new space vehicles called Orion and Ares, capable of traveling to the Space Station, to the Moon, and eventually to Mars.

2015 unknown date - China is expected to overtake Japan as the 2nd largest economy in the world.

2015 unknown date - Hydrogen vehicles are expected to become affordable and ready to find at car dealerships by this year.

March 2020 - Yahoo! Inc.'s 25th birthday; opening of the Yahoo! Time Capsule.

2020 unknown date - According to current plans and workings for Project Constellation, NASA should be returning Humans to the Moon.

2020 unknown date - Brazil is expected to reach the status of a developed country.

"By 2030, the world will have only enough food to feed everyone at the level of an Indian peasant (on average)." According to the Worldwatch Institute, as reported in Newsweek, September 12, 1994.

The European Space Agency hopes to land humans on Mars between 2030 and 2035.

Scientists predict Arctic Ice will completely melt in the summer of 2030.

2050 - The world's population is expected to reach over 9 billion.

2050 - Robots will beat humans at football.

By the year 2050, what the reports calls the "E7" economies — China, India, Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, Mexico and Turkey — will have outstripped the current G7 — US, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Canada — by between 25% when comparing GDP using market exchange rates to around 75% when using purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates.

By 2100, 12% (about 1250) of the bird species existing at the beginning of the 21st century are expected to be extinct or threatened with extinction, according to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July 4, 2006.

2103 - Humans colonize Mars according to Star Trek Voyager episode "The 37s (Voyager episode)".

By the year 2150, over 50% of schools in the USA or Western Europe will require classes in defending against robot attacks. - Alex K. Rubin.

2150 - If fertility rates were to stay constant at 1990-1995 levels for the next 155 years, the world in 2150 would need to support 296 billion persons.

2200 - If we stopped burning fossil fuels today Earth would gradually start cooling back down. It would return to current temperatures.

Monday, October 22, 2007


Have you already tried to read barcodes printed on the label of the products you find on the supermarket shelves?

Be sure that to create them was much more difficult than read them. In 1948 Bernard Silver a supermarket executive asked some Drexel Institute of Technology students to figure out how to capture product information automatically at checkout. Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland started to cogitate how that would be possible. The two worked on some preliminary ideas without great results. One day at the beach, Woodland thought about the problem; what came to his mind was Morse code. If dots and dashes could be used to send information electronically, there certainly should be a way to capture data about grocery products that could be communicated electronically.

Together with Jordin Johanson they filed for a U.S. patent in October 1949 and it was granted in 1952.

The best-known and most widespread barcode pattern is UPC (Universal Product Code) developed as a response to business needs. On June 26, 1974 at 8:01 am, Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio made history when register a 10-pack of Wrigley's Juicy Fruit through a hand-made laser scanner made by NCR Corp.

The UPC encodes 12 decimal digits as SLLLLLLMRRRRRRE, where S (start) and E (end) are the bit pattern 101, M (middle) is the bit pattern 01010 (called guard bars), and each L (left) and R (right) are digits.

The (L) and (R) codes for each digit are the one's complement of each other Digit (L) code (R) code:
0 0001101 1110010
1 0011001 1100110
2 0010011 1101100
3 0111101 1000010
4 0100011 1011100
5 0110001 1001110
6 0101111 1010000
7 0111011 1000100
8 0110111 1001000
9 0001011 1110100

Today barcodes also come in patterns of dots, concentric circles, and text codes hidden within images. A barcode is a machine-readable representation of information, read by optical scanners called barcode readers or scanned from an image by special software.

To be used all over the world barcodes has integrated to EAN (European Article Number), a superset of UPC, adding an extra digit to the beginning (EAN 13).

The Uniform Code Council (UCC) and the Electronic Commerce Council of Canada (ECCC) joined EAN International to create and standardized codes for every nation in the world. The first three digits of the barcode of any product represents the country, as follows:

List of GS1* country codes - *GS1 (Global Standard One) is a global organization dedicated to the design and implementation of global standards and solutions to improve the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand chains globally and across multiple sectors):

000 – 019 U.S. and Canada
020 – 029 reserved for local use (store/warehouse)
030 – 039 U.S. and Canada drugs (see U.S. National Drug Code)
040 – 049 reserved for local use (store/warehouse)
050 – 059 coupons
060 – 099 U.S. and Canada
100 – 139 U.S. and Canada (reserved for later use)
200 – 299 reserved for local use (store/warehouse)
300 – 379 France and Monaco
380 Bulgaria
383 Slovenia
385 Croatia
387 Bosnia and Herzegovina
400 – 440 Germany (440 code inherited from old East Germany on reunification, 1990)
450 – 459 Japan
460 – 469 Russia
470 Kyrgyzstan
471 Taiwan
474 Estonia
475 Latvia
476 Azerbaijan
477 Lithuania
478 Uzbekistan
479 Sri Lanka
480 Philippines
481 Belarus
482 Ukraine
484 Moldova
485 Armenia
486 Georgia
487 Kazakhstan
489 Hong Kong SAR
490 – 499 Japan
500 – 509 United Kingdom
520 Greece
528 Lebanon
529 Cyprus
530 Albania
531 FYR Macedonia
535 Malta
539 Republic of Ireland
540 – 549 Belgium and Luxembourg
560 Portugal
569 Iceland
570 – 579 Denmark, Faroe Islands and Greenland
590 Poland
594 Romania
599 Hungary
600 – 601 South Africa
603 Ghana
608 Bahrain
609 Mauritius
611 Morocco
613 Algeria
616 Kenya
618 Côte d'Ivoire
619 Tunisia
621 Syria
622 Egypt
624 Libya
625 Jordan
626 Iran
627 Kuwait
628 Saudi Arabia
629 United Arab Emirates
640 – 649 Finland
690 – 695 China PR
700 – 709 Norway
729 Israel
730 – 739 Sweden
740 Guatemala
741 El Salvador
742 Honduras
743 Nicaragua
744 Costa Rica
745 Panama
746 Dominican Republic
750 Mexico
754 – 755 Canada
759 Venezuela
760 – 769 Switzerland and Liechtenstein
770 Colombia
773 Uruguay
775 Peru
777 Bolivia
779 Argentina
780 Chile
784 Paraguay
785 Peru
786 Ecuador
789 – 790 Brazil
800 – 839 Italy, San Marino and Vatican City
840 – 849 Spain and Andorra
850 Cuba
858 Slovakia
859 Czech Republic
860 Serbia and Montenegro
865 Mongolia
867 North Korea
869 Turkey
870 – 879 Netherlands
880 South Korea
884 Cambodia
885 Thailand
888 Singapore
890 India
893 Vietnam
899 Indonesia
900 – 919 Austria
930 – 939 Australia
940 – 949 New Zealand
950 Head Office
955 Malaysia
958 Macau
977 Serial publications (ISSN)
978 – 979 Bookland (ISBN) – 979 formerly used for sheet music
980 Refund receipts
981 – 982 Common Currency Coupons
990 – 999 Coupons

Countries not listed above are not currently on the GS1 system.

Another code widely used is the DUN-14 (Distribution Unit Number), it is not really a barcode type. It's a numbering system for shipping containers that uses other barcode symbology. The DUN-14 uses the ITF-14 (the GS1 implementation of an Interleaved 2 of 5 bar code to encode a Global Trade Item Number ) or the EAN-14 symbol set. Modern installations always use the EAN-14 to encode the DUN-14.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Connected 24 Hours in the Global Economy - Daniel Altman

Where were you on June 15th 2005 ? Can’t you remember? Maybe Daniel Altman would know. In his book Daniel Altman - Connected 24 Hours in the Global Economy (Publication Date: May 2007 - Publisher: Tantor Media Inc ) the Global Economics Correspondent of the International Herald Tribune, for which he moderates the blog Managing Globalization he also served as one of the youngest-ever members of the editorial board of The New York Times, Altman chooses a day, June 15 2005, and describes 14 circumstances from any place around the world. He uses the old cog-in-the-machine metaphor of the laborer with a new globally connected and empowered knowledge class.

He begins each chapter with a news article or an email about a specific event somewhere in the world. We will then understand how this particular event relates to the global economy. This is the economist zooming in and out from the micro to the macro environment.

His first chapter starts with two world clocks, the first in New York 12:03 am and the second in Stockholm 06:03 am of the day June 15th , 2005. In this day, precisely at this time Ericsson and Napster came up with a music service that would deliver songs to mobile phones and PCs interchangeably. This partnership took six months of negotiation. Ericsson, “a pillar of its nation’s corporate identity”, and Napster “is an upstart that began life as an illegal network of tech junkies and only recently became a respectable brand” showed that most successful linkups are usually built on a combination of comforting similarities and useful differences.

Then Altman went to Tokyo to describe a cultural shift in the way Japanese people see competition and what happened at 04:02 p.m. at Fair Trade Commission’s office in Tokyo. Then Altman goes to Ho Chi Minh citiy, Hong Kong, Quingdao –China, etc.

Connected is an important peace of work for those who want to understand the powers of globalization. Globalization was not a deliberated decision took by one person, group of people or institution, globalization runs by itself, every time you pay your bill or make a trip to some distant country, “The market is like the world’s oceans; add a drop to the Atlantic, and the water level everywhere else will rise” as Altman eloquently puts.

Thursday, October 18, 2007

You tell the story - Travel through Space and Time: The IV Dynasty of Egypt

If Blemya is a blog dedicated to cool places and things in the world, travel, etc. why not to write about space and TIME travel?

My idea was to write about the ancient Egypt during the IV Dynasty, the economy, the places, etc. With that intent in my earlier days I went to the library for research, I’ve found books there were often, out-of-date, bias, poorly reasearched. Then I tried to continue my search in internet, and I came across articles about open codes that other software developers have all been using.

I decided to create the blog

Then came the idea, why not write an open story, I could use all data available about Pharaoh Sneferu, Rahotep and Nofret, Cheops, as platform and readers will be able to fill in the blanks. Maybe Nofret had an affair with Prince Nefermaat, vizier to King Sneferu.

The history begins at September 13th 2589 (Year 4 from coronation date, day 27, month paopi, season of the overflow of Nile river of his Magesty, Sneferu - The King of Upper and Low[er] Egypt) - day of the Festival of lighting the fires of Neith, with two time/space travelers: the young Luiz Pagano and his lion. They arrived in a flashlight right in the middle of a battle between the Egyptians and the Monitu.

Egyptians had conquered Monitu and forced them to pay tribute and for this purpose it was necessary to hold the country by a set of military posts. Pharaoh Sneferu’s employees use to mine in Wady Maghara (land of Monitu) and in this particular night the presence of the boy and the lion aggravates a quarrel between two nations.

An opportunist Monitu soldier took advantage from the chaos caused by the arrival of the time travelers and hit Keops (son of Sneferu) in the head.

Khufu (in Greek known as Χέωψ, Cheops; pronounced "key-ops") was son of Sneferu, second Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from 2589 BC to 2566 BC.

Sneferu, was the founder of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt, reigning from 2613 BC to 2589 bC. He used to call himself Neter aa, "the Great God," and Neb mat, "the Lord of Justice." He is also "the Golden Horus," or "the Conqueror." runs to help his son...

If you want to know more click on

You will continue it…..

Saturday, October 13, 2007

Incredible and expensive tour packages

When MirCorp sent Dennis Tito, an American businessman and former JPL scientist to visit the International Space Station (April 28, 2001), they knew that they were making history as the only company to have sent paying passengers to space.Tito who became world’s first space tourist had paid for the tour package 20 million dollars to the Russian agency, which put him into orbit for seven days 22 hours on the International Space Station.

After that in August 10, 2003 Ekaterina Dmitriev was married by proxy in Texas to Yuri Malenchenko, a cosmonaut who was at that time aboard the International Space Station. It was the first "space wedding" in history. The luckiest couple
didn't have to pay for the party because Yuri was on duty.
But if you are not that lucky as Yuri, and don’t want to spend as much as Tito, you could fly a Mig or Sukhoi Fighter Jets in Moscow. The package includes a breathtaking 80,000 feet altitude fly on a MiG-25 at over Mach-2.4 speed. A company called flymig even offers real-time ordering with immediate online pricing .
Is air sport becoming boring? Ok, sharkbookings offers tour packages where you could have a dream date with Great White Shark. They say that so far, client’s most serious injury has been a sunburn .

Friday, October 12, 2007

Airport code

Airport code

Airport code

That characters that you see all the time displayed on baggage tags attached at airport check-in desks are codes created by IATA, it is called IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier. Is a 3 letter code that designates many airports all over the world.

Normally they are very easy to be identified, for example, the IATA code for London Heathrow is LHR. Otters are not that obvious, such as CMH for Columbus, Ohio, USA or ORD for Chicago O’Hare (formally called Orchand Field), USA.

The elaboration of these codes is governed by IATA Resolution 767, and it is administered by IATA headquarters in Montreal. The codes are published biannually in the IATA Airline Coding Directory. The codes are not exclusive: 323 of the possible 17,576 codes are used by more than one airport.

Though the IATA codes are the most familiar airport codes to passengers, the 4-letter ICAO airport codes are becoming more and more common within aviation. All international flights are planned and tracked using ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) designators, and most of the GPS databases use ICAO codes to avoid conflicts with three-letter navigation-aid codes. Many countries, such as Canada, no longer use IATA codes in their official aeronautical publications.

You will find bellow the list of some busy airports in the world, region and States. Is mentioned also in the list the official name and/or the name commonly used, IATA (International Air Transport Association) airport cod:

AAE = Annaba, Algeria
AAL = Alborg, Denmark
AAR = Aarhus, Denmark
ABD = Abadan, Iran
ABE = Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
ABI = Abilene, Texas, USA
ABJ = Port Bouet Airport, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
ABM = Bamaga, Australia
ABQ = Albuquerque International Sunport, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
ABR = Aberdeen, South Dakota, USA
ABS = Abu Simbel, Egypt
ABX = Albury, Australia
ABY = Albany, Georgia, USA
ABZ = Aberdeen, UK
ACA = Alvarez International Airport, Acapulco, Mexico
ACC = Kotoka International Airport, Accra, Ghana
ACE = Arrecife, Spain, near Lanzarote
ACY = Atlantic City International Airport, Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA
ADA = Adana, Turkey
ADD = Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
ADE = Aden, Yemen
ADL = Adelaide International Airport, West Beach, Australia, near Adelaide
ADX = Aktyubinsk, Kazakhastan
ADY = Alldays, South Africa
AEP = Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, Argentina
AER = Adler and Sochi, Russia
AES = Ålesund Airport Vigra, Norway
AEX = Alexandria, Louisiana, USA
AGA = Agadir, Morocco
AGB = Augsburg, Germany
AGS = Augusta Regional Airport, Augusta, Georgia, USA
AGU = Aguascalientes, Mexico
AGZ = Aggneys, South Africa
AHN = Athens, Georgia, USA
AHO = Alghero Sassari, Italy
AHU = Al Hoceima, Morocco
AJA = Ajaccio, France
AJN = Anjouan, Comoros
AJU = Aracaju, Brazil
AJY = Agades, Niger
AKJ = Asahikawa Airport, near Asahikawa, Japan
AKL = Auckland International Airport, Mangere, New Zealand, nearAuckland
ALB = Albany International Airport, Albany, New York, USA
ALC = Alicante, Spain
ALG = Algiers, Algeria
ALH = Albany, Australia
ALJ = Alexander Bay, South Africa
ALV = Andorra La Vella, Andorra
ALY = Alexandria, Egypt
AMA = Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, Amarillo, Texas, USA
AMD = Ahmedabad International Airport, Ahmedabad, India
AMM = Queen Alia Airport, Amman, Jordan
AMS = Schiphol Airport, Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands, near Amsterdam
ANB = Anniston, Alabama, USA
ANC = Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Anchorage, Alaska, USA
ANK = Ankara, Turkey
ANR = Antwerp, Belgium
ANU = V. C. Bird International Airport, Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda
AOH = Lima Allen County Airport, Lima, Ohio
AOI = Ancona, Italy
AOJ = Aomori, Japan
AOO = Altoona, Pennsylvania, USA
APF = Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, Florida, USA
APN = Alpena County Regional Airport, Alpena, Michigan, USA
APW = Apia, Western Samoa
AQJ = Aqaba, Jordan
ARB = Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
ARN = Arlanda Airport, Stockholm, Sweden
ASE = Aspen-Pitkin County Airport, Aspen, Colorado, USA
ASJ = Amami, Japan
ASK = Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire
ASP = Alice Springs, Australia
ATH = Eleftherios Venizelos Airport, Spata, near Athens, Greece (succeeded Ellinikon International Airport)
ATL = William B. Hartsfield International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
ATQ = Amritsar, India
ATW = Appleton, Wisconsin, USA, near Neenah, Wisconsin, and Menasha, Wisconsin
AUA = Queen Beatrix International Airport, near Orenjasted, Aruba
AUG = Augusta Airport, Augusta, Maine, USA
AUH = Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
AUR = Aurillac, France
AUS = Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, Austin, Texas, USA
AVL = Asheville Regional Airport, Fletcher, North Carolina, USA, near Asheville, North Carolina
AXA = Anguilla
AXS = Armenia, Colombia
AXT = Akita, Japan
AYQ = Ayers Rock, Australia
AYR = Ayr, Australia
AYT = Antalya, Turkey
AZO = Kalamazoo-Battle Creek International Airport, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

BAH = Bahrain
BAK = Baku, Azerbaijan
BAQ = Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport, Barranquila, Colombia
BBI = Bhubaneswar, India
BBT = Berberati, Central African Republic
BBY = Bambari, Central African Republic
BCN = El Prat International Airport, El Prat de Llobregat, Spain, near Barcelona
BDA = Bermuda International Airport, Ferry Reach, Bermuda, near Hamilton
BDL = Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, near Hartford, Connecticut, USA
BDQ = Baronda, India
BDS = Brindsi, Italy
BDU = Bardufoss Airport, Norway
BEG = Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
BEH = Benton Harbour, Michigan, USA
BEL = Belem, Brazil
BEN = Benghazi, Libya
BER = All Airports, Berlin, Germany
BES = Brest, France
BET = Bethel, Alaska, USA
BEW = Beira, Mozambique
BEY = Beirut International Airport, Beirut, Lebanon
BFD = Bradford, Pennsylvania, USA, near Warren, Pennsylvania, and Olean, New York
BFL = Meadows Field Airport, Bakersfield, California, USA
BFN = Bloemfontein Airport, Bloemfontein, South Africa
BFS = Belfast International Airport, Belfast, UK
BGF = Bangui, Central African Republic
BGI = Grantley Adams International Airport, Bridgetown, Barbados
BGO = Bergen Airport Flesland, Bergen, Norway
BGR = Bangor, Maine, USA
BGU = Bangassou, Central African Republic
BGW = All Airports, Baghdad, Iraq
BGY = Orio al Serio International Airport, Bergamo, Italy, near Milan
BHD = Belfast City Airport, Belfast, UK
BHE = Blenheim, New Zealand
BHM = Birmingham International Airport, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
BHO = Bhopal, India
BHV = Bahawalpur, Pakistan
BHX = Birmingham International Airport, Birmingham, UK
BIA = Bastia, France
BIL = Billings Logan Airport, Billings, Montana, USA
BIO = Bilbao, Spain
BIQ = Biarritz, France
BIS = Bismarck, North Dakota, USA, near Mandan, North Dakota
BJI = Bemidji, Minnesota, USA
BJL = Banjul, Gambia
BJS = All Airports, Beijing, China
BJX = Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico
BJZ = Badajoz, Spain
BKK = Don Muang Airport, Bangkok, Thailand
BKW = Beckley, West Virginia, USA
BKO = Senou International Airport, Bamako, Mali
BLA = Barcelona, Venezuela
BLF = Bluefield, West Virginia, USA
BLI = Bellingham International Airport, Bellingham, Washington, USA
BLL = Billund, Denmark
BLQ = Gugliemo Marconi Airport, Bologna, Italy
BLR = Hindustan International Airport, Bangalore, India
BLZ = Chileka Airport, Blantyre, Malawi
BMG = Bloomington, Indiana, USA
BMI = Bloomington, Illinois, USA, near Normal, Illinois
BMP = Brampton Island, Australia
BNA = Nashville International Airport, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
BNE = Brisbane International Airport, Brisbane, Australia
BNK = Ballina, Australia
BNP = Bannu, Pakistan
BOB = Bora Bora, French Polynesia
BOD = Bordeaux, France
BOE = Boundji, Colombia
BOG = El Dorado International Airport, Bogota, Colombia
BOH = Bournemouth Hurn Airport, UK
BOI = Boise Air Terminal, Boise, Idaho, USA
BOJ = Burgas, Bulgaria
BOM = Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, India
BON = Flamingo International Airport, near Kralendijk, Bonaire
BOO = Bodø Airport, Bodø, Norway
BOS = Lt. General E.L. Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, near Boston
BOW = Bartow, Florida, USA
BOY = Bobo and Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
BPT = Southeast Texas Regional Airport, Nederland, Texas, USA
BQH = Biggin Hill, UK
BQK = Brunswick, Georgia, USA, near Glyncouster, Georgia
BQN = Rafael Hernandez Airport, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, USA
BRD = Brainerd, Minnesota, USA
BRI = Bari, Italy
BRN = Belp Airport, Bern, Switzerland
BRQ = Brno, Czech Republic
BRS = Bristol, UK
BRU = Brussels International Airport, Brussels, Belgium
BSB = Brasilia, Brazil
BSL = Basel-Mulhouse International Airport, Basel, Switzerland and Mulhouse, France
BTR = Baton Rouge Metropolitian Airport, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
BTS = Bratislava, Slovakia
BTU = Bintulu, Malaysia
BTV = Burlington, Vermont, USA
BUD = Ferihegy Airport, Budapest, Hungary
BUE = All Airports, Buenos Aires, Argentina
BUF = Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York, USA
BUG = Bengueka, Angola
BUH = All Airports, Bucharest, Romania
BUR = Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport, Burbank, California, USA
BVA = Beauvais Airport, Tille, France
BVB = Boa Vista, Brazil
BWI = Baltimore-Washington International Airport, between Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, DC, USA
BWN = Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
BXO = Bissau, Guinea Bissau
BXS = Borrego Springs, California, USA
BYK = Bouake, Côte d'Ivoire
BYU = Bayreuth, Germany
BZE = Phillip S. W. Goldson International Airport, Ladyville, Belize, northwest of Belize City
BZG = Bydgoszcz, Poland
BZL = Barisal, Bangladesh
BZN = Albert Gallatin Airport, Bozeman, Montana, USA
BZV = Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo

CAE = Columbia Metropolitian Airport, Columbia, South Carolina, USA
CAI = Cairo International Airport, Cairo, Egypt
CAK = Akron, Ohio, near Canton, Ohio, USA
CAN = Guangzhou, China
CAS = All Airports, Casablanca, Morocco
CAT = Cat Island, Bahamas
CCS = Maiquetia International Airport, Maiquetia, Venezuela, near Caracas
CCU = Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Dum Dum, India, near Kolkata, India
CDC = Cedar City, Utah, USA
CDG = Charles De Gaulle International Airport, Roissy, France, near Paris
CDQ = Croydon, Australia
CEB = Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu Philippines
CEI = Chiang Rai International Airport, Chiang Rai, Thailand
CEN = Ciudad Obregón, Mexico
CFE = Clermont-Ferrand, France
CGK = Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia
CGX = Meigs Field, Chicago, Illinois, USA
CHA = Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA
CHI = All Airports, Chicago, Illinois
CHO = Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
CHS = Charleston International Airport, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
CID = Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
CJS = Ciudad Juárez, Mexico
CKB = Clarksburg, West Virginia, USA
CKY = Conakry, Guinea
CLE = Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
CLJ = Cluj-Napoca International Airport, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
CLO = Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport, Cali, Colombia
CLT = Charlotte Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
CMH = Port Columbus International Airport, Columbus, Ohio, USA
CMN = Mohammed V International Airport, Casablanca, Morocco, USA
CMX = Houghton County Memorial Airport, Boston Location, Michigan, USA, near Hancock, Michigan
CNF = Belo Horizonte, Brazil
CNS = Cairns Airport, Cairns, Australia
CNX = Chiang Mai International Airport, Chiang Mai, Thailand
COD = Cody, Wyoming, USA
COO = Cotonou, Benin
COS = Colorado Springs Airport, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
CPE = Campeche, Mexico
CPH = Kastrup Airport, Amager, Denmark, near Copenhagen
CPQ = Viracopos: Campinas International Airport, Brazil
CPR = Casper, Wyoming, USA
CPT = Cape Town International Airport, Cape Town, South Africa
CGH = Congonhas Airport, Sao Paulo, Brazil
CRW = Yeager Airport, Charleston, West Virginia, USA
CRP = Corpus Christi International Airport, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA
CSG = Columbus, Georgia, USA
CTA = Catania, Italy
CTS = Chitose International Airport, Sapporo, Japan
CUR = Hato International Airport, near Willemstad, Curaçao
CUN = Cancún International Airport, Cancún, Mexico
CUL = Culiacán, Mexico
CUU = Chihuahua, Mexico
CVG = Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, Hebron, Kentucky, USA, near Cincinnati, Ohio
CZM = Cozumel, Mexico

DAB = Daytona Beach, Florida, USA
DAC = Zia International Airport, Dhaka, Bangladesh
DAL = Love Field, Dallas, Texas, USA
DAM = Damascus International Airport, Syria
DAR = Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
DAY = James M. Cox International Airport, Dayton, Ohio, USA
DCA = Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Arlington, Virginia, USA, near Washington, DC
DEL = Indira Gandhi International Airport New Delhi, India
DEN = Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado, USA
DFW = Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, Texas, USA, near Dallas, Texas and Fort Worth, Texas
DHN = Dothan, Alabama, USA
DKR = Dakar-Yoff-Leopold Sedal Senghor International Airport, Dakar, Senegal
DLA = Douala, Cameroon
DME = Domodedovo International Airport, Moscow, Russia
DMM = King Fahad International Airport, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
DOG = Dongola, Sudan
DOH = Doha, Qatar
DPS = Denpasar, Indonesia
DRS = Dresden, Germany
DSM = Des Moines, Iowa, USA
DTT = All Airports, Detroit, Michigan, USA
DTW = Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, near Detroit, Michigan, USA
DUB = Dublin International Airport, Dun Laoghaire, Ireland, near Dublin
DUR = Durban International Airport, Durban, South Africa
DUS = Düsseldorf International Airport, Düsseldorf, Germany
DXB = Dubai International Airport, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

EAP = Basel-Mulhouse International Airport, Basel, Switzerland and Mulhouse, France
EDI = Edinburgh International Airport, Edinburgh, UK
EFD = Ellington Field, Houston, Texas, USA
EGE = Eagle County Airport, Eagle County, Colorado, USA, near Vail, Colorado
EIN = Eindhoven Airport, Eindhoven, Netherlands
EIS = Beef Island, British Virgin Islands, near Tortola, British Virgin Islands
EIW = County Memorial Airport, New Madrid, Missouri, USA
EKO = Elko, Nevada, USA
ELM = Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, Elmira, New York and Big Flats, New York, USA
ELP = El Paso International Airport, El Paso, Texas, USA
ELS = East London Airport, East London, South Africa
EMA = East Midlands Airport, Leicestershire, UK
ERI = Erie, Pennsylvania, USA
ESF = Alexandria, Louisiana, USA
EUG = Mahlon Sweet Airport, Eugene, Oregon, USA
EVN = Zvartnots International Airport, Yerevan, Armenia
EVV = Evansville Regional Airport, Evansville, Indiana, USA
EWR = Newark Liberty International Airport, Newark, New Jersey, USA, near New York City
EXT = Exeter, UK
EYW = Key West International Airport, Key West, Florida, USA
EZE = Ministro Pistarini International Airport, Ezeiza, Argentina, near Buenos Aires

FAI = Fairbanks International Airport, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA
FAR = Hector International Airport, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
FAT = Fresno Yosemite International Airport, Fresno, California, USA
FAY = Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA
FCA = Glacier Park International Airport, Kalispell, Montana, USA
FCO = Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport Fiumicino, Italy, near Rome
FJR = Fujairah, United Arab Emirates
FLG = Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
FLL = Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, near Hollywood, Florida
FLO = Florence, South Carolina, USA
FLR = Amerigo Vespucci Airport, Florence, Italy
FMY = Page Field, Florida, USA
FNJ = Pyongyang Sunan Airport, Pyongyang, North Korea
FNT = Flint, Michigan, USA
FPO = Grand Bahama International Airport, Freeport, Bahamas
FPR = Fort Pierce, Florida, USA
FRA = Frankfurt International Airport, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
FUK = Fukuoka Airport, Fukuoka, Japan
FWA = Fort Wayne International Airport, Fort Wayne, Indiana
FYV = Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA

GCI = Guernsey, UK
GCM = Owen Roberts International Airport, near Georgetown, Cayman Islands
GDA = Lech Walesa International Airport, Gdansk, Poland
GDL = Guadalajara, Mexico
GEG = Spokane International Airport, Spokane, Washington, USA
GEO = Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Georgetown, Guyana
GIG = Rio De Janeiro International Airport, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
GJT = Grand Junction, Colorado, USA
GLA = Glasgow International Airport, Glasgow, UK
GLH = Mid-Delta Regional Airport, Greenville, Mississippi, USA
GMP = Gimpo Airport, Gimpo, South Korea, near Seouk
GND = Port Salines International Airport, Grenada
GNV = Gainesville Regional Airport, Gainesville, Florida, USA
GOA = Genoa, Italy
GOT = Gothenburg-Landvetter Airport, Gothenburg, Sweden
GPA = Araxos, Greece
GPT = Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport, Gulfport, Mississippi, USA
GRB = Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA
GRJ = George Airport, George, South Africa
GRR = Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA
GRU = Guarulhos International Airport, Sao Paulo, Brazil
GSO = Piedmont Triad International Airport, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA
GSP = Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, Greer, South Carolina, USA
GTF = Great Falls, Montana, USA
GTR = Golden Triangle Regional Airport, serving Columbus, West Point and Starkville, Mississippi, USA
GUA = Guatemala City International Airport, Guatemala City, Guatemala
GUB = Guerrero Negro, Mexico
GUM = Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport, Tamuning, Guam, USA, near Hagåtña, Guam
GVA = Cointrin International Airport, Geneva, Switzerland
GWY = Galway Airport, Carnamore, Ireland, near Galway
GYE = Simon Bolivar International Airport, Santiago de Guayaquil, Ecuador
GYM = Guaymas, Mexico

HAJ = Hanover, Germany
HAM = Hamburg, Germany
HAN = Hanoi, Vietnam
HAV = Jose Marti International Airport, Havana, Cuba
HDY = Hat Yai International Airport, Hat Yai, Thailand
HEL = Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, Vantaa, Finland, near Helsinki
HFD = All Airports, Hartford, Connecticut, USA
HHN = Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
HKG = Hong Kong International Airport, Hong Kong, China (succeeded Kai Tak International Airport)
HKT = Phuket International Airport, Phuket, Thailand
HLN = Helena, Montana, USA
HMO = Hermosillo, Mexico
HND = Tokyo International Airport, Tokyo, Japan
HNL = Honolulu International Airport, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
HBA = Hobart, Australia
HOU = William P. Hobby Airport, Houston, Texas, USA
HPN = Westchester County Airport, White Plains, New York, USA
HRL = Valley International Airport, Harlingen, Texas, USA
HSV = Huntsville International Airport, Huntsville, Alabama, USA, near Decatur, Alabama
HTS = Tri-State Airport, Huntington, West Virginia, USA

IAD = Washington Dulles International Airport, in Chantilly, Virginia, USA, near Washington, DC
IAH = George Bush Intercontinental Airport, near Houston, Texas, USA
ICN = Incheon International Airport, Incheon, South Korea, near Seoul
IDA = Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA
IEG = Zielona Gora, Poland
IEV = All Airports, Kiev, Ukraine
ILE = Killeen, Texas, USA
ILM = Wilmington, North Carolina, USA
IND = Indianapolis International Airport, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
IRO = Biraro, Central African Republic
ISB = Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad, Pakistan
ISP = Long Island MacArthur Airport, Islip, New York, USA
IST = Ataturk International Airport, Istanbul, Turkey
ITH = Ithaca Tompkins Regional Airport, Ithaca, New York, USA
ITM = Osaka International Airport, Itami, Japan, near Osaka
IXG = Belgaum, India
IGI = New Delhi, India

JAC = Jackson Hole, Wyoming, USA
JAN = Jackson, Mississippi, USA
JAX = Jacksonville International Airport, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
JED = King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
JER = Jersey, UK
JFK = John F. Kennedy International Airport , Jamaica, New York, USA in New York City
JKT = All Airports, Jakarta, Indonesia
JNB = Johannesburg International Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa
JNU = Juneau, Alaska, USA
JRO = Kilimanjaro International Airport, Tanzania
JRS = Jerusalem International Airport, Jerusalem

KBL = Kabul International Airport, Kabul, Afghanistan
KBP = Kyiv, Ukraine
KEF = Keflavik International Airport, Keflavik, Iceland, near Reykjavic
KHH = Kaohsiung International Airport, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
KHI = Karachi International Airport , Karachi, Pakistan
KIJ = Niigata, Japan
KIM = Kimberley Airport, Kimberley, South Africa
KIN = Norman Manley International Airport, Kingston, Jamaica
KIX = Kansai International Airport, Osaka, Japan
KOA = Keahole Airport Kailua, Hawaii and Kona, Hawaii, USA
KOJ = Kagoshima, Japan
KPB = Zhulyany International Airport, Kiev, Ukraine
KRK = John Paul II International Airport, Cracow, Poland
KSC = Kosice, Slovakia
KTW = Katowice International Airport, Katowice, Poland
KUL = Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
KWI = Kuwait International Airport, Kuwait City, Kuwait

LAN = Capital City Airport, Lansing, Michigan, USA
LAP = La Paz, Mexico
LAS = McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
LAX = Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California, USA
LBA = Leeds/Bradford Airport, West Yorkshire, Uinted Kingdom
LBB = Lubbock International Airport, Lubbock, Texas, USA
LBI = Albi, France
LBV = Libreville, Gabon
LCJ = Lodz, Poland
LCY = London City Airport, London, Uinted Kingdom
LED = Pulkovo International Airport, Saint Petersburg, Russia
LEJ = Leipzig/Halle Airport, Leipzig, Germany
LEX = Lexington, Kentucky, USA
LFT = Lafayette Regional Airport, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA
LFW = Lome, Togo
LGA = La Guardia Airport, Flushing, New York, USA, in New York City
LGB = Long Beach Municipal Airport, Long Beach, California, USA, near Los Angeles, California
LGW = London Gatwick Airport nearby London, UK
LGP = Legazpi Airport nearby Legazpi City, Philippines
LHE = Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore, Pakistan
LHR = London Heathrow Airport, London, UK
LIA = Lima, Ohio, USA
LIG = Limoges, France, USA
LIH = Lihue Airport Lihue, Hawaii, USA
LIM = Jorge Chavez International Airport, Callao, Peru, near Lima
LIN = Linate Airport, Milan, Italy
LIR = Guanacaste Liberia, Costa Rica
LIS = Portela Airport, Lisbon, Portugal
LIT = Little Rock National Airport, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
LLH = Las Limas, Honduras
LMM = Los Mochis, Mexico
LON = All Airports, London, UK
LOS = Lagos Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos, Nigeria
LOV = Monclova, Mexico
LPL = Liverpool John Lennon Airport, Liverpool, UK
LRD = Laredo International Airport, Laredo, Texas, USA
LRM = La Romana, Dominican Republic
LRT = Lorient, France
LST = Launceston, Australia
LTO = Loreto, Mexico
LTN = London Luton Airport, Luton, UK, near London
LUG = Lugano, Switzerland
LUN = Lusaka, Zambia
LUX = Luxembourg-Findel, Luxembourg
LWB = Lewisburg, West Virginia, USA
LYH = Lynchburg, Virginia, USA
LYS = Saint-Exupéry International Airport, Lyon, France

MAA = Chennai International Airport, Tirusulam, India, near Chennai
MAD = Barajas International Airport, Madrid, Spain
MAF = Midland International Airport, Midland, Texas, near Odessa, Texas, USA
MAN = Manchester International Airport, Manchester, UK
MBJ = Sangster International Airport, Montego Bay, Jamaica
MBS = MBS International Airport, Saginaw, Michigan, USA
MCI = Kansas City International Airport, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
MCN = Macon, Georgia, USA
MCO = Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida, USA
MDE = Jose Maria Cordova International Airport, Medellin, Colombia
MDT = Harrisburg International Airport, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA
MDW = Midway International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, USA
MEI = Meridian, Mississippi, USA
MEL = Melbourne Airport, Tullamarine, Australia, near Melbourne
MEM = Memphis International Airport, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
MEX = Benito Juarez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico
MFE = McAllen-Miller International Airport, McAllen, Texas, USA
MFM = Macau International Airport, Macau, China
MFR = Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, Medford, Oregon, USA
MGA = Augusto C. Sandino International Airport, Managua, Nicaragua
MGM = Montgomery, Alabama, USA
MHT = Manchester Airport, Manchester, New Hampshire, USA
MIA = Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, USA
MID = Meridia, Mexico
MIL = All Airports, Milan, Italy
MJV = San Javier-Murcia Airport, Murcia, Spain
MKC = All Airports, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
MKE = General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
MLA = Malta International Airport, Malta
MLB = Melbourne International Airport, Melbourne, Florida, USA
MLH = Mulhouse, France
MLI = Quad City International Airport, Moline, Illinois, USA
MLU = Monroe, Louisiana, USA
MNL = Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Manila, Philippines
MOB = Mobile Regional Airport, Mobile, Alabama, USA
MOL = Molde Airport Årø, Molde, Norway
MOW = All Airports, Moscow, Russia
MPL = Montpelier, France
MRS = Marseilles, France
MRY = Monterey, California, USA
MSN = Dane County Regional Airport, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
MSO = Missoula, Montana, USA
MSP = Minneapolis-St Paul International Airport, near St Paul, Minnesota and Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
MSQ = Minsk International Airport, near Minsk, Belarus
MSY = Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, Kenner, Louisiana, USA, near New Orleans
MTJ = Telluride Regional Airport, Telluride, Colorado, USA, nearby Montrose, Colorado
MTY = Monterrey, Mexico
MUC = Franz Josef Strauß International Airport, Munich, Germany
MXL = Mexicali, Mexico
MXP = Malpensa International Airport, Varese, Italy, near Milan
MYR = Myrtle Beach Airport, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA
MZT = Mazatlan, Mexico

NAN = Nadi International Airport, Nadi, Fiji
NAP = Naples, Italy
NAS = Nassau, Bahamas
NBO = Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya
NCE = Côte d'Azur International Airport, Nice, France
NCY = Annecy, France
NDJ = N'Djamena, Chad
NGS = Nagasaki, Japan
NGO = Komaki International Airport, Nagoya, Japan
NIM = Niamey, Niger
NKC = Nouakchott, Mauritania
NTY = Pilanesburg International Airport, Pilanesburg, South Africa
NRT = New Tokyo International Airport, Narita, Japan, near Tokyo
NSI = Yaoundé, Cameroon
NTE = Nantes, France
NUE = Nuremberg, Germany
NYC = All Airports, New York City, USA

OAK = Oakland International Airport, Oakland, California, USA, near San Francisco
OAX = Oaxaca, Mexico
OGG = Kahului Airport, Kahului, Hawaii, USA
OIT = Oita, Japan
OKC = Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
OKJ = Okayama, Japan
OMA = Eppley Air Field, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
OMR = Oradea International Airport, Oradea, Romania
ONT = Ontario International Airport, Ontario, California, USA, near Los Angeles
OPO = Porto, Portugal

ORD = O' Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, USA
ORF = Norfolk International Airport, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
ORK = Cork International Airport, Cork, Ireland
ORM = Sywell Airport, Northampton and Peterborough, UK
OSA = All Airports, Osaka, Japan
OSL = Oslo Airport Gardermoen, Ullensaker, Norway, north of Oslo
OSR = Ostrava, Czech Republic
OTP = Otopeni International Airport, Otopeni, Romania, near Bucharest, Romania
OUA = Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
OUZ = Zouerate, Mauritania
OVB = Tolmachevo Airport, Novosibirsk, Russia
OXR = Oxnard Airport, Oxnard, California, USA

PAP = Port-au-Prince International Airport, Port-au-Prince, Haiti
PAR = All Airports, Paris, France
PAH = Paducah, Kentucky, USA
PBI = Palm Beach International Airport, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA, near Palm Beach, Florida
PDS = Piedras Negras, Mexico
PDX = Portland International Airport, Portland, Oregon, USA
PEI = Matecana International Airport, Pereira, Colombia
PEK = Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing, China
PER = Perth Airport, Perth, Australia
PFN = Panama City-Bay County International Airport, Panama City, Florida, USA
PHC = Omagwa International Airport, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
PHF = Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport, Newport News, Virginia, USA
PHL = Philadelphia International Airport, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
PHX = Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
PIA = Peoria, Illinois, USA
PIE = Saint Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, Clearwater, Florida, USA, near St Petersburg, Florida
PIH = Poctatello, Idaho, USA
PIK = Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom, near Glasgow
PIT = Pittsburgh International Airport, Findlay Township, Pennsylvania, USA, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
PLH = Plymouth Airport, Plymouth, UK
PLS = Providencales, Turks and Caicos Islands
PLZ = Port Elizabeth Airport, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
PMO = Palermo International Airport (Falcone-Borsellino / Punta Raisi), Palermo, Italy
PNS = Pensacola Regional Airport, Pensacola, Florida, USA
POP = Puerto Plata Airport, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic
POS = Piarco International Airport, Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago, near Port of Spain
POZ = Poznan International Airport, Poznan, Poland
PPT = Faaa International Airport, Papeete, Tahiti
PRG = Ruzyne International Airport, Prague, Czech Republic
PSA = Galileo Galilei Airport, Pisa, Italy
PSC = Tri-City Airport, Pasco, Washington, USA
PSE = Mercedita Airport, Ponce, Puerto Rico, USA
PSP = Palm Springs, California, USA
PTP = Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe
PTY = Tocumen International Airport, Panama City, Panama
PUB = Pueblo, Colorado, USA
PUJ = Punta Cana, Dominican Republic
PUS = Gimhae International Airport, Gimhae, Korea, near Busan
PVD = T. F. Green Airport, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
PVG = Pu Dong International Airport, Shanghai, China
PVK = Preveza Airport, Greece
PVR = Gustavo Diaz Ordaz International Airport, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico
PWM = Portland International Jetport, Portland, Maine, USA
PZH = Zhob, Pakistan

QDF = All Airports, Dallas, Texas, USA
QHO = All Airports, Houston, Texas, USA
QLI = Limassol, Cyprus
QNB = Anand, India

RAK = Menara International Airport, Marrakech, Morocco
RDM = Roberts Field, Redmond, Oregon, USA
RDU = Raleigh-Durham International Airport, Durham, North Carolina, USA, near Raleigh, North Carolina
RGN = Yangon, Myanmar
RIC = Richmond International Airport, Richmond, Virginia, USA
RLT = Arlit, Niger
RNO = Reno/Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada, USA
ROC = Greater Rochester International Airport, Rochester, Monroe County, New York, USA
ROM = All Airports, Rome, Italy
ROR = Koror, Palau
RST = Rochester International Airport, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
RSW = Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, Florida, USA
RUH = King Khaled International Airport, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
RZE = Rzeszow, Poland

SAC = All Airports, Sacramento, California, USA
SAL = Comalapa International Airport, San Salvador, El Salvador
SAN = San Diego International Airport, San Diego, California, USA
SAO = All Airports, Sao Paulo, Brazil
SAP = Ramon Villeda Morales International Airport, San Pedro Sula, Honduras
SAT = San Antonio International Airport, San Antonio, Texas, USA
SAV = Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia, USA, near Hilton Head, South Carolina
SBD = San Bernardino International Airport, San Bernardino, California, USA
SCL = Arturo Merino Benitez International Airport, Santiago, Chile
SDA = Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad, Iraq
SDF = Louisville International Airport, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
SDL = Sundsvall-Härnösand (Midlanda) Airport, Sundsvall, Sweden
SDQ = Las Americas International Airport, Punta Caucedo, Dominican Republic, near Santo Domingo
SEA = Seattle-Tacoma Airport, Washington, USA, near Seattle, Washington and Tacoma, Washington
SEX = Sembach Airport, Finsterwalde, Germany
SFB = Orlando Sanford International Airport, Sanford, Florida, USA, near Orlando
SFO = San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, California, USA
SGN = Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
SHA = Hongqiao Airport, Shanghai, China
SID = Amilcar Cabral International Airport, Sal Island, Cape Verde
SIN = Changi International Airport, Changi, Singapore
SJC = Norman Yoshio Mineta San Jose International Airport, San Jose, California, USA
SJD = Los Cabos, Mexico
SJO = Juan Santa Maria International Airport, San José, Costa Rica
SJU = Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA
SLC = Salt Lake City International Airport, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
SLU = Vigie Airport, Castries, Saint Lucia
SMF = Sacramento International Airport, Sacramento, California, USA
SNA = John Wayne Airport, Santa Ana, California, USA
SNN = Shannon International Airport, Shannon, Ireland
SOU = Southampton Airport, Southampton, UK
SRQ = Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, Sarasota, Florida, USA near Bradenton, Florida
STI = Santiago, Dominican Republic
STL = Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport, Saint Louis, MissouriSantiago, Chile
STN = London Stansted Airport, Essex, UK, near London
STO = All Airports, Stockholm, Sweden
STR = Echterdingen Airport, Stuttgart, Germany
STT = Cyril E. King International Airport, Charlotte Animalie, USA Virgin Islands
STX = Henry E. Rohlsen International Airport, Saint Croix, USAVirgin Islands
SUF = Lamezia Terme, Italy
SUJ = Satu Mare International Airport, Satu Mare, Romania
SUM = Hagåtña, Guam, USA
SVG = Stavanger Airport Sola, Stavanger, Norway
SVO = Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, Russia
SWF = Stewart International Airport, Newburgh, New York, USA
SXF = Schönefeld International Airport, Berlin, Germany
SYD = Kingsford Smith International Airport, Mascot, Australia, near Sydney
SYR = Syracuse Hancock International Airport, Syracuse, New York, USA
SZB = Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Subang, Malaysia
SZY = Szczytno, Poland
SZZ = Szczecin, Poland

TAB = Crown Point International Airport, Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago
TAS = Vostochny International Airport, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
TGU = Toncontin International Airport, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
TFS = Reina Sofia Airport (Tenerife Southern Airport), Isle of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
THF = Tempelhof International Airport, Berlin, Germany
TIA = Rinas Mother Teresa Airport, Tirana, Albania
TIJ = General Abelardo L. Rodriguez International Airport, Tijuana, Mexico
TLH = Tallahassee Regional Airport, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
TLL = Tallinn Airport, Tallin, Estonia
TLV = Ben Gurion International Airport, Lod, Israel, near Tel Aviv
TNR = Annantarivo, Madagascar
TPA = Tampa International Airport, Tampa, Florida, USA
TPE = Chiang Kai Shek International Airport, Taoyuan, Taiwan, near Taipei
TRF = Sandefjord Airport Torp, Torp, Norway, near Sandefjord
TRV = Trivandrum International Airport, Trivandrum, India
TSR = Timisoara, Romania
TUL = Tulsa International Airport, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
TUN = Carthage Airport, Tunis, Tunisia
TUS = Tucson International Airport, Tucson, Arizona, USA
TVC = Cherry Capital Airport, Traverse City, Michigan, USA
TXL = Tegel International Airport, Berlin, Germany
TYO = All Airports, Tokyo, Japan
TYS = McGhee Tyson Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

UCA = Utica, New York, USA
UIO = Mariscal Sucre International Airport, Quito, Ecuador
ULN = Buyant Ukha Airport, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
UTN = Upington Airport, Upington, South Africa
URC = Urumqi, China
URT = Surat Thani, Thailand
USH = Ushuaia International Airport, Ushuaia, Argentina
UVF = Hewanorra International Airport, Vieux-Fort, Saint Lucia

VCE = Marco Polo International Airport, Venice, Italy
VIE = Vienna International Airport, Vienna, Austria
VKO = Vnukovo Airport, Moscow, Russia
VLI = Bauerfield International Airport, Port Vila, Vanuatu
VNO = Vilnius International Airport, Vilnius, Lithuania
VPS = Okaloosa Regional Airport, Valparaiso, Florida, USA, near Fort Walton Beach, Florida
VVI = Viru Viru International Airport, Santa Cruz, Bolivia

WAW = Frederick Chopin International Airport, Warsaw, Poland
WDH = Windhoek International Airport, Windhoek, Namibia
WRO = Wroclaw International Airport, Wroclaw, Poland

XMN = Xiamen, China
XNA = Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport, Bentonville, Arkansas, USA, near Fayetteville and Springdale

YAK = Yakutat, Alaska, USA
YAO = Yaounde, Cameroon
YAT = Attawapiskat, Northwest Territories, Canada
YBC = Bagotville, Quebec, Canada
YBL = Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada
YCD = Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada
YCG = Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada
YDF = Deer Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
YEA = All Airports, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
YEG = Edmonton International Airport, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
YEL = Elliot Lake Airport, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada
YFB = Iqaluit Airport, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada
YFC = Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
YFO = Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada
YGK = Kingston, Ontario, Canada
YGP = Gaspe, Quebec, Canada
YHZ = Halifax International Airport, Enfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, near Halifax
YKA = Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
YKM = Yakima, Washington, USA
YKZ = Buttonville Municipal Airport, Markham, Ontario, Canada
YLW = Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
YMM = Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada
YMQ = All Airports, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
YMX = Montreal-Mirabel International Airport, Mirabel, Quebec, Canada, near Montreal
YNB = Yanbu, Saudi Arabia
YOK = Yokohama, Japan
YOW = Macdonald-Cartier International Airport, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
YPR = Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada
YQB = Jean Lesage International Airport, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada, in Quebec City
YQG = Windsor, Ontario, Canada
YQL = Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
YQM = Greater Moncton International Airport, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada
YQQ = Comox, British Columbia, Canada
YQR = Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
YQT = Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
YQU = Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada
YQX = Gander International Airport, Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
YQY = Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada
YSB = Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
YSJ = Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
YTH = Thompson, Manitoba, Canada
YTS = Timmins, Ontario, Canada
YTO = All Airports, Toronto, Ontario
YTZ = Toronto City Centre Airport, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
YUL = Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Dorval, Quebec, Canada in Montreal
YUM = Yuma, Arizona, USA
YUY = Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec, Canada
YVO = Val d'Or, Quebec, Canada
YVR = Vancouver International Airport, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, near Vancouver
YWG = Winnipeg International Airport, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
YWK = Wabush, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
YXC = Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada
YXE = Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
YXH = Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada
YXJ = Fort St. John, British Columbia, Canada
YXS = Prince George Airport, British Columbia, Canada
YXU = London International Airport, London, Ontario, Canada
YXX = Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada
YXY = Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada
YYB = North Bay, Ontario, Canada
YYC = Calgary International Airport, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
YYF = Penticton, British Columbia, Canada
YYG = Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
YYJ = Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
YYR = Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
YYT = St. John's Airport, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
YYZ = Toronto Pearson International Airport, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada near Toronto
YZF = Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
YZR = Sarnia, Ontario, Canada
YZV = Sept-Iles, Quebec, Canada

ZAD = Zadar, Croatia
ZAG = Zagreb, Croatia
ZAZ = Zaragoza, Spain
ZBO = Bowen, Australia
ZCL = Zacatecas, Mexico
ZIH = Zihuatenejo, Mexico, near Ixtapa
ZND = Zinder, Niger
ZRH = Zurich International Airport, Zürich, Switzerland ZTH = Zakynthos, Greece

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